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Coruscant-AoTCW
Coruscant
Astrographical
Region

Core Worlds[1]

Sector
System

Coruscant system[2]

Suns

1: Coruscant Prime[2]

Orbital position

6[3]

Moons
Grid coordinates

L-9[3]

XYZ coordinates

0,0,0[3]

Distance from Core

10,000 light years[3]

Rotation period

24 standard hours[2]

Orbital period

368 local days[2]

Physical
Class

Terrestrial[2]

Diameter

12,240 km[2]

Atmosphere

Type I (breathable)[2]

Climate

Temperate and controlled[7]

Gravity

Standard[2] (near 9.81 m/s2)

Primary terrain
Points of interest
Native fauna
Societal
Native species
Immigrated species

Various other species, Zuna[2]

Primary language(s)
Government
Population
  • Official census: 1 trillion permanent ground residents [2]
  • 78% Humans[3]
  • 22% Other[3]
  • Additional amount of transients, temporary workers, unregistered populace, residents of orbital facilities[16]
Demonym

Coruscanti[17]

Major cities

Galactic City (capital)[5]

Major imports
  • Foodstuffs[2]
  • Medicinal goods[2]
Major exports

Culture[5]

Affiliation
"Coruscant… the capital of the Republic… the entire planet is one big city."
Ric Olié[src]

Coruscant (pronounced /'kɔɹəsɑnt/), originally called Notron, also known as Imperial Center or the Queen of the Core, was a planet located in the Galactic Core. It was generally agreed that Coruscant was, during most of galactic history, the most politically important world in the galaxy. At various times, it was the capital of the Galactic Republic, the Galactic Empire, the New Republic, the Yuuzhan Vong Empire, the Galactic Alliance, very briefly the Fel Empire, Darth Krayt's Galactic Empire and the Galactic Federation Triumvirate. In controlling Coruscant, these governments controlled most of the galaxy in the process.

Over the centuries, Coruscant had developed into an ecumenopolis. The actual planet-wide metropolis of Coruscant was called Galactic City. Under the Galactic Republic, the names Republic City or the City of Spires were also used to reference the city. It was also called Imperial City under the Galactic Empire, and New Republic City under the New Republic. However, in practice, Galactic City and its other names were sometimes applied to the Senate District, the central government center and de facto capital of Coruscant. Under the Yuuzhan Vong, the city and planet were both referred to as Yuuzhan'tar.

Description

Coruscant was a planet located in the Core Worlds. Located at the intersection of numerous major hyperlanes— including the Perlemian Trade Route, the Corellian Run, the Metellos Trade Route, the Koros Trunk Line, and the Leisure Corridor—its hyperspace coordinates were (0,0,0) which effectively made it the center of the galaxy. These coordinates also inspired the planet's military designation, "triple zero," though the actual galactic center was located in the Deep Core. As the de facto center of the galaxy, however, Coruscant was generally agreed to be the most important planet throughout most of galactic history, as well as being on of the wealthiest due to its advantageous location.[4]

Coruscant served as the capital for the Galactic Republic, Galactic Empire, New Republic, Yuuzhan Vong Empire, Galactic Alliance, the Fel Empire, Darth Krayt's Galactic Empire, and the Galactic Federation Triumvirate. It also served at various times as the home of the Jedi Order and the Jedi Temple.

Surface

"Seen from orbit, Imperial Center is a blaze of light and sparkling colors, reminding some spacers of corusca stones, after which this planet was named long ago."
Pollux Hax[src]

Geologically, the planet was composed of a molten core with a rocky mantle and a silicate rock crust. At its poles were huge ice caps that were popular spots for tourists. The entire surface of Coruscant was covered by sprawling kilometers-high ecumenopolis, and boasted a population of over a hundred billion to several trillion, depending on the era. Following the end of the Clone Wars, an official census noted 1 trillion official permanent residents. The statistics did not include transients, temporary workers, unregistered populace nor residents of orbital facilities. Because of these omissions, the actual population of Coruscant was estimated to be three times the official record.[3][16]

Surfaceorbit
Coruscant's surface as seen from orbit.

Coruscanti skyscrapers dwarfed all the original natural features, including mountains, as well as floors of oceans which once covered a large portion of Coruscant's surface. Areas of Galactic City were broken up into levels, megablocks, blocks, and subblocks.[18] Coruscant itself was divided into quadrants, which were divided into zones.[8] Below the skyscrapers was Coruscant's undercity, where sunlight never reached. Artificial lighting illuminated these lower levels and advertisement holograms could be seen everywhere. There were numerous establishments for entertainment, catering to a myriad of alien species. The residents were collectively referred to as Twilighters.[17]

Coruscant was once a world mostly covered in oceans.[19] However, all natural bodies of water were drained and stored in vast caverns beneath the city as a result of years of overpopulation. The only body of water visible was the artificial Western Sea, with many artificially-created islands floating on it, used by tourists on holidays.[4]

With no other bodies of water available to feed and water its trillion inhabitants, Coruscant's architects, along with many others from around the galaxy, worked together to build a self-contained eco-system in the massive buildings set all over the planet. Polar cap stations also melted ice and distributed water throughout the planet-wide city through a complex series of pipes.[4]

Neighborhoods

"An incandescent organ of life, visibly vibrating with the pulses of billions."
Supreme Chancellor Signet Mezzileen.[src]
CoruscantUW-ST
Coruscant's Undercity was dangerous and filled with crime.

Galactic City was divided into quadrants, several thousand in number, with each quadrant further split into sectors.[8] Each sector was numbered on official maps, but sectors often had nicknames, such as Sah'c Town, also known as sector H-46, named for a prominent family that owned a large portion of its land, or The Works, the largest of Coruscant's designated industrial zones.

The Works was once one of the galaxy's major manufacturing areas, where starship parts, droids, and building materials were heavily produced for centuries, but as construction and industry became cheaper and more efficient and cheaper off-world, The Works fell into disrepair.[8] The area gained a reputation as a hub of criminal activity and locals generally stayed away from it.

A similar, but more dangerous area, was the Factory District, which was once the industrial heart of Coruscant until it too lost out to competition from producers in other Core Worlds. By the time of the Great Jedi Purge it lay in ruins and was almost completely deserted of sentients, because of the feral droids that prowled its streets. It was located on the opposite side of the planet, and was much more dangerous than the Southern Underground, Invisible Sector, which were infamous in their own right.[16]

Another area of Coruscant was CoCo Town, an abbreviation of "collective commerce." Many diverse species lived there and worked in manufacturing. A partially enclosed open-air plaza near the Senate building, the Column Commons, was so-called because it housed most of the HoloNet and news media corporations.[5]

Environment

"The attitude of most inhabitants is that Coruscant exists for the business of government, not for vacations and sunbathing and sightseeing…"
―Pollux Hax[src]

A series of orbital mirrors were set up that reflected the sun's warmth and light. Several of these mirrors were destroyed during the Clone Wars, specifically the Battle of Coruscant. It is known that thunderstorms and rain occurred during 19 BBY[20] and 3 ABY.[21]

CoruscantPipelines-LT
Huge pipelines carry water and other substances across the massive cityscape covered surface of the planet

The planet produced trillions of tons of waste every hour. Though almost everything on the planet, from clothes to packaging and machinery was recyclable, some waste was too dangerous to recycle. Such items included worn-out hyperdrive cores which were delivered to one of the planet's five thousand garbage pits, where they were put into canisters and fired into a tight orbit around the planet. Garbage ships then collected them and transported them to nearby moons for storage. Some of the more dangerous materials were shot into the nearby sun for complete incineration. Garbage not exported or destroyed was mixed into a slurry of silicone oils and processed by garbage worms which chewed it into pellets while removing any remaining organics, plastic, or recoverable metals. They turned millions of tons of pellets into carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases.

Coruscant enormous population and industrialization also produced massive amounts of carbon dioxide and heat energy. Thousands of carbon dioxide-reactive atmospheric dampeners were put into place in the upper atmosphere to prevent atmospheric degeneration. The first set of these planet-wide dampeners, developed by the Galactic Republic, was known as the Coruscant Atmospheric Reclamation Project.[22]

Near the planet's core were a number of massive power relay stations. The lowest levels were abandoned to mutants and scavengers, such as the cannibalistic, mythical Cthon. The foundations of many of the buildings, some of which weighed billions of tons, also extended deep into the planet's crust.[5]

Galactic Standard Time was developed on Coruscant and so was tied to the daily and yearly cycle of the planet. A Standard day, like Coruscant, was made up of 24 hours, while a Standard year's 368 days reflected the length of Coruscant's year.[5]

History

Pre-Republic

"The recorded history of Coruscant stretches back so far that it becomes indistinguishable from legend…"
Pollux Hax[src]

The planet was considered by many to be the Human homeworld, and was known as Notron early in its history. It has been speculated that at some point, the Celestials transplanted humans from Coruscant in order to populate Corellia and other human societies on different planets throughout the galaxy.[12]

In the planet's ancient history, the near-Human Taungs attempted to conquer the 13 baseline human nations of the Battalions of Zhell. During this period, the eruption of a volcano resulted in ash filling the skies for two years, decimating the Zhell. As a result, the Taung adopted the name Dha Werda Verda for themselves; a phrase which eventually held an important place in Mandalorian society.. The human Zhell eventually recovered and drove the Taung offworld.[12]

One hundred millennia later, Coruscant was surveyed by the Columi, who dismissed the planet as a primitive disappointment, despite the already-planet-spanning ecumenopolis of Galactic City. After the city grew to encompass the entire planet, the inhabitants started building on top of the old structures. As a result, there was eventually no exposed land. In the forgotten underlevels of the city, there was darkness, pollution and crime; higher up, there were government offices and penthouses owned by the elite. The lower fifty levels of the ecumenopolis are said to have last seen sunlight tens of thousands of millennia ago.[4] The Gree were said to have helped build Coruscant's original infrastructure.[23]

Coruscant, unlike many worlds, was a protectorate of the Infinite Empire of the Rakata and not a slave world who used human workers to build the Star Forge in 30,000 BBY. Under Rakatan domination, the humans of Coruscant's colonization attempts were limited to sleeper ships, which ended up on Alderaan, Alsakan, Anaxes, Atrisia, Axum, Corulag, Kuat, Metellos, Seoul 5, in the Tion Cluster, and on many other worlds. The Rakata were eventually decimated by a massive plague, leading to rebellions on Coruscant and other subjugated worlds.[12]

Over the next two centuries, Coruscant was linked to other Core Worlds, including Corellia, Alderaan, New Plympto and Duro, by hyperspace cannons, via the Herglic Trade Empire. It was during this time that the Coruscant government peacefully absorbed the nearby Azure Imperium. During these pre-Republic years, the languages of Coruscant and its neighbors meshed to become Old Galactic Standard.[4]

Galactic Republic

"That's the seat of Galactic government!'"
Exar Kun[src]
File:SackingOfCoruscant-TORtrailer.jpg
The Sacking of Coruscant in 3,653 BBY.

In 25,053 BBY, when the Galactic Constitution was signed, the Corellians and Duros invented the hyperdrive proper, allowing Coruscant to become the capital of the democratic union, the Galactic Republic. 53 years later the planet became the galactic center, and remained the Republic's capital for 24,981 more years. Shortly after the formation of the Republic, the Perlemian Trade Route was mapped, linking Coruscant to Ossus and bringing the Jedi Order into the Republic. Over the next millennium, the Corellian Run was mapped, linking Coruscant to Corellia and beyond. Blasters were also invented on Coruscant around this time, and the famous Galactic Museum was constructed in 12,000 BBY.[4][3] From the very beginning, Coruscant, as the Republic's capital, was the primary objective in several wars. The earliest among these was the Tionese War with the Honorable Union of Desevro & Tion in 24,000 BBY, in which Coruscant was bombarded with Tionese pressure bombs.

Significant later battles involving Coruscant included the Alsakan Conflicts, the Duinuogwuin Contention, the Great Hyperspace War, the Third Great Schism, the Great Droid Revolution, and the Great Sith War. At the end of the Great Sith War in 3,996 BBY, the Senate Building was built to replace the old Senate Hall.[5]

Following the devastation of Ossus, the Jedi Council took up residence in the Jedi Temple on Coruscant, to which many Jedi relics from Ossus were taken. The Temple was greatly expanded, including the building of the original Jedi Council Chamber.[5]

Coruscant view EII 1
The skyscrapers of Coruscant in 32 BBY.

The Great Galactic War, broke out between the Galactic Republic and the resurgent Sith Empire in 3,681 BBY and lasted until 3,653 BBY. Towards the end of the war, the Sith surprised the galaxy and extended an offer of peace to the Republic. Although cautious of the Empire's intentions, the Republic's Galactic Senate accepted.[24]

While Republic and Imperial delegations convened on Alderaan for treaty negotiations, Sith Lord Darth Angral led a Sith battle fleet to Coruscant and initiated the Sacking of Coruscant. Their first contact was made with the Coruscant Security Force's Orbital Security Station Six which the Sith quickly obliterated. They then began their invasion of the planet. Sending a stolen Republic shuttle to the Jedi Temple, the Sith broke through and engaged the Jedi who were present as well as the Temple Security Force. However, the Jedi were overwhelmed and Coruscant's defenses were brought down allowing the Sith to land their troops. The Sith took the Senate Building and the Supreme Chancellor was assassinated. Six members of the Jedi Council were also killed in the battle, while the Jedi Temple itself was destroyed.[24]

With Coruscant securely in their grip, the Empire was able to take command of the negotiations on Alderaan, forcing the Republic delegation to sign the controversial Treaty of Coruscant. Although it brought an end to the Great Galactic War, the treaty set the stage for the Cold War,[24] which would last a scarce decade before open conflict resumed.[23]

At some point, the Sith were defeated and the Jedi returned to Coruscant, erecting a new Temple in place of the old. This new Temple was repeatedly expanded, including in 3,519 BBY and 2,519 BBY when the Jedi Archives were built, and 1,019 BBY when the Temple spires were finally fully rebuilt.[5]

The New Sith Wars brought turmoil again to the Republic. Beginning in 2,000 BBY with the Fourth Great Schism and ending 1,000 BBY, the New Sith Wars contained 1,000 years of fighting between the Republic and the Sith. The Republic Dark Age that began in 1,100 BBY was seen by most as a period where the Republic ceased to exist as its territory became a rump around Coruscant and the some of the Core Worlds. The Jedi took direct control of the Republic, bypassing the Senate entirely. The Sith were poised to take Coruscant itself only to be stopped at Ruusan. With the Sith armies thought to be completely destroyed, the Republic was rebuilt under the Ruusan Reformation. A new age began for the Republic, a time of peace lasting for several centuries.[5]

SecurityActCoruscant
Chancellor Palpatine's Security Acts put Coruscant in a perpetual state of lockdown.

In 33 BBY, terrorist organization The Flail, accusing the Galactic Senate of corruption, disrupted public services of Coruscant, including commerce, communications, traffic and weather, destroying property and lives while doing so. They were stopped by agents of Finis Valorum.[25]

In 32 BBY, the violent criminal gang Black Heth started terrorizing the Coruscant Underworld. The Jin'ha group was supplying weapons, but the Jedi Padawan Obi-Wan Kenobi intervened and stopped the criminal activity.[26]

In 27 BBY, Coruscant was almost destroyed by Ashaar Khorda using the Infant of Shaa. Jango Fett, Zam Wesell, and Yarael Poof saved Coruscant, although Poof sacrificed himself to do so. News of this averted disaster was never widely divulged, however.[27]

During the Separatist Crisis in 23 BBY, the Confederacy of Independent Systems had become a significant threat to the stability of the Republic. Many systems seceded from Republic control, among them Ando and Sy Myrth, resulting in a mass exodus of Aqualish and Sy Myrthians from Coruscant.[28]

Around this time, several assassination attempts were made on Naboo senator Padmé Amidala while she was on Coruscant, including the bombing of her personal ship, destroying it and killing several of her handmaidens and guards. Jedi Knights Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi were assigned to protect her. Eventually, they managed to foil another attempt at Padmé's penthouse by Zam Wesell, leading to an airspeeder chase through Coruscant which ended in a showdown at the Outlander Club, a sports bar and club found in an entertainment district in the lower levels. The Jedi caught Wesell, but she was killed by Jango Fett, an act which led Kenobi to Kamino.[29]

During most of the galaxy-wide Clone Wars which erupted in 22 BBY, Coruscant was subject to frequent Separatist terrorist acts and assassinations of leading Republic figures. Notable incidents were the raid of Ziro's palace after the Republic discovered the Hutt's affiliation with Count Dooku; the holding of Senator Meena Tills hostage by Korunnai terrorists which was actually cover for an attempt to turn the Corporate Sector against the Republic; and the Senate hostage crisis at the Republic Executive Building that was carried out by bounty hunter Cad Bane to free Ziro the Hutt. The year 21 BBY saw a wave of such disasters, including the Coruscant Insurrection by Count Dooku and Dark Jedi Trenox to steal a holocron at the Jedi Temple;[30] the bombing of the freighter Star of Iskin that killed former Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum and thousands on the surface;[31] the terrorist attack on a power generator that resulted in power outages and fires throughout the Senate District;[32] the assassination of Senator Viento by rogue Jedi Quinlan Vos;[33] and the murders of Senator Onaconda Farr and Senator Mee Deechi by Farr's personal aide Lolo Purs.[34]

Target sighted
The Zillo Beast terrorizes Coruscant while hunting Chancellor Palpatine.

Also, at some point during the Clone Wars, there was an incident involving a Zillo Beast from Malastare. After the creature was transported to Coruscant by order of Chancellor Palpatine, the Zillo Beast was subjected to examination and experimentation. When Palpatine ordered its destruction in order to hasten the procedure, the Zillo Beast broke free and immediately sought vengeance on the man who was intent on killing it.[35]

As it rampaged through Galactic City, thousands of citizens tried to flee in terror while the Jedi and their clone forces scrambled to neutralize the creature. Upon reaching the Executive Building, the Zillo Beast nearly succeeded in killing the Chancellor, only for its efforts to be thwarted by the Jedi. Although they succeeded in killing it, Chancellor Palpatine discreetly ordered that Zillo Beast be cloned to conduct further research.[35]

Such incidents prompted the Republic to implement numerous changes on Coruscant in the name of increased security. Huge stretches of the cityscape were transformed into military staging areas, and clone troopers of the Republic's newly formed Grand Army were dispatched throughout the planet on regular patrols as the capital's military guard. The fanatically pro-Human COMPOR was founded; the local SAGroup, led by Nenevanth Tion, marched in a parade of Republic patriotism on Coruscant. COMPOR pressured Tannon Praji into deporting from the capital all members of species whose homeworld had joined the Confederacy.[5]

Following the Star of Iskin incident, the Senate approved the Enhanced Security and Enforcement Act, which allowed Supreme Chancellor Palpatine to strip civil liberties in the name of civil security. Coruscant fell under particularly heavy government supervision, with security becoming gradually tighter as one traveled deeper into the levels of the Galactic City.[36] The planet's lower levels, which had once been a haven for crime and an unregulated market, became heavily subdued, such that illicit goods and services became difficult to find.[37] While most Coruscanti were content with surrendering these and other liberties for security, the changes did not sit well with the galactic capital's alien population, particularly those that were associated with the leadership of the Confederacy. Many Geonosians, Muuns, Neimoidians, and Gossams suffered ostracization on Coruscant, while many others were forced to flee the world altogether. In addition, numerous rumors surfaced regarding antiwar demonstrations that were quelled with forceful measures, seizure of private property, and disappearances. As disturbing as these abuses of power were, proof of the acts was either nonexistent or easily discredited. Throughout the remainder of the war, the Enhanced Security and Enforcement Act was altered by amendments known as the Security Acts, which, although intended to further enhance security throughout the Republic, also contributed to Palpatine's growing power over the government and the weakening of the authority of the Galactic Senate.[38]

Despite the numerous precautions taken, in 19 BBY the Confederacy of Independent Systems succeeded in making a surprise raid on Coruscant. Bypassing the heavily fortified Corellian sector by use of secret hyperspace routes through the Deep Core, provided by Darth Sidious, a Separatist fleet under the command of the dreaded General Grievous took the city planet completely unaware. While the Separatist ships engaged the Republic home defense fleet, an army of battle droids descended upon Galactic City. The invasion distracted the defending Jedi and clone forces while General Grievous and a squad of his elite MagnaGuards captured the Chancellor Palpatine.[17]

Coruscant at night
Night view of the Senate District from 500 Republica, c. 19 BBY.

However, Jedi Knights Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi succeeded in rescuing the Supreme Chancellor from the infamous Separatist flagship Invisible Hand. The Battle of Coruscant eventually turned in the Republic's favor and the Separatist's armada was forced into a full retreat. However, the battle had shaken much of the population, and large portions of the city had been decimated by falling ships or collateral damage caused in the vicious fighting.[17]

At the conclusion of the Clone Wars, Chancellor Palpatine ordered the destruction of the Jedi Order by issuing Order 66 to all clone troopers throughout the galaxy from his executive office. In the Grand Convocation Chamber of the Senate Building, Palpatine announced to the members of the Galactic Senate the creation of his New Order. With the Jedi all but destroyed, Palpatine proclaimed his intentions to reorganize the Republic into the first Galactic Empire, and thus declared himself Emperor of the galaxy. As with the Republic, Coruscant continued to function as the galactic capital, but was renamed "Imperial Center," while Galactic City was re-dubbed "Imperial City."[5]

Galactic Empire

"Imperial Center was a world with enough diversions for just about anyone."
Mara Jade Skywalker[src]

While the planet's name was officially changed during Palpatine's rule, most working-class denizens of the Galactic Empire continued to call the planet-city by its old name. As part of the Humanocentric policies of the Empire, non-Human species were also compelled to live in segregated areas of Imperial City, the largest and best-known of which was known as Invisec. Those that did enter other parts, whether by intention or mistake, were punished brutally.[4]

Imperialpalace1
The Imperial Palace.

Emperor Palpatine also began to shape Coruscant with his own designs, and this included the installation of almost one million surveillance systems throughout the ecumenopolis. Massive shield generators were placed all over Coruscant, and where the shield segments overlapped, powerful storms would brew. Although Coruscant had always been known for its high concentration of thunderstorms due to rising vapor from the billions of buildings and homes, the increased frequency lent the planet a foreboding, almost Gothic look. Palpatine also arranged for the Executor-class Star Dreadnought Lusankya to be buried beneath the Manarai Mountains district. Later, the massive battleship was used as a private prison by Director of Imperial Intelligence Ysanne Isard.[5]

Palpatine also had the Palace of the Republic rebuilt and renamed the Imperial Palace. The Palace, a massive pyramidal structure which was by far the largest structure on Coruscant, was rumored to also be the largest building in the entire galaxy, with the possible exceptions of the massive Sharu plastic pyramids of the Rafa system.[4]

Following the death of Palpatine at the Battle of Endor in 4 ABY, an uprising took place on Coruscant. Billions of Coruscanti reveled in their new-found freedom, and an armed uprising sprang out from the non-human-dominated sectors. Imperial patrols were attacked in the streets, statues of Palpatine were toppled and other Imperial symbols were desecrated.[39]

In the midst of the celebrating and rioting, alarmed Imperial authorities ordered a massive crackdown on the rebellious elements in the city-planet's population and gave full power to the local military force to end the uprising and restore order to the system. The military retaliation was ruthless and the death toll rose as the Empire struck down the insurrectionists and brought the populace back under its control.[40]

Following these tumultuous events, the Grand Vizier Sate Pestage assumed control of Imperial Center. Unfortunately, he was opposed by Palpatine's former advisors who formed the Inner Circle. Ysanne Isard operated as a neutral intermediary between the two opposing factions. Unbeknownst to them, she had been secretly pitting them against each other, clearing the path for her rise to become Empress in all but name, though neither side realized her true intentions until it was far too late. She eventually assumed control of Imperial Center in 5 ABY though her reign was plagued by the threat of rival warlords and the expanding New Republic. Thus, she had a team of scientists including Evir Derricote create an artificial virus known as the Krytos virus which only affected non-Human species and then contaminated the city planet's water supply with it.[41]

Imperial center ROTJ
Crowds celebrate the death of Palpatine.

Later, in 6.5 ABY, the famous New Republic starfighter squadron Rogue Squadron under their leader Wedge Antilles were sent undercover to infiltrate Coruscant and sabotage the planet's powerful shield generator. To do this, they hijacked a construction droid and used it to transport them to a command center where they used one of the planet's orbital mirrors to evaporate a large amount of reservoir water, thus creating a powerful electrical storm which brought down the shields. This allowed a New Republic fleet under the famed Admiral Gial Ackbar to enter the Coruscant system and capture the galactic capital.[41]

However, within days of the victory, millions of Coruscant's non-Human population started to die due to the Krytos virus. Since only Humans were immune to the virus, this drove a wedge between the New Republic's member species. Worse, Ysanne Isard used the Lusankya to escape Coruscant and flee to the planet Thyferra despite the efforts of Rogue Squadron. In the process, the Lusankya caused devastation to over 100 square miles (259 km²) of the planet's surface, killing millions of inhabitants instantly. It then blasted its way through the two planetary shield levels, pausing to exchange fire with an orbiting Golan III Space Defense NovaGun before jettisoning the lift cradle and departing the Coruscant system. Later, New Republic scientists developed a cure for the Krytos virus by mixing bacta with a rare grade of the spice ryll, known as kor. This prevented further loss of alien life, though inter-species relationships remained volatile for some time.[42]

New Republic

"Welcome to the next chapter in the history of the galaxy."
General Tyr Taskeen to Brenn and Dellis Tantor[src]

Controlling Coruscant was the key to the Galactic Civil War for the New Republic. Imperial City was renamed once more to New Republic City and the former official name Imperial Center was abandoned. After Isard's loss of Coruscant and her retreat to Thyferra, fragmentation within the Empire deepened as the Imperials lost faith in their leaders and the survivors of the Imperial Inner Circle were found once again providing a tenuous central authority for the Empire. They supported the Chiss Grand Admiral Thrawn as Supreme Commander—mistakenly believing that as an alien, and with no standing in their rarefied political world, he would necessarily remain beholden to their patronage and government.[43]

RebelVictoryAtCoruscant
New Republic troops hoisting the banner of the New Republic over Coruscant.

In 8 ABY, Coruscant was visited by the Hapes Consortium which surrounded the planet with a fleet of Hapan Battle Dragons, marking the first time in millennia that the insular society had made significant contact with the rest of the galaxy since the Consortium sealed its borders around 3,100 BBY. At the Grand Reception Hall, the Hapan delegates presented the New Republic with many magnificent gifts including several captured Imperial Star Destroyers.[44]

In 9 ABY, during the Thrawn Crisis, Grand Admiral Thrawn's fleet besieged the galactic capital. Since his forces were outnumbered by the New Republic defenses of Coruscant, he used cloaking technology to create an effective siege weapon. To do this, he fitted 22 asteroids with cloaking devices and placed them onboard his Star Destroyers. During the battle, Thrawn placed the asteroids in low orbit, then retreated into hyperspace, creating an invisible hazard field around the galactic capital.[45]

As a result, the New Republic was faced with two major problems: they couldn't drop the energy shield around the planet in case an asteroid hit the heavily populated cityscape nor could they allow space traffic near the planet in case of collision. This left Coruscant effectively blockaded. After Thrawn died at the Battle of Bilbringi, the blockade was lifted and Coruscant was free again.[45]

In 10 ABY, the Imperial Inner Circle, encouraged by what Thrawn had accomplished so quickly with so little, agreed to organize an attack on Coruscant and other key New Republic worlds in the Core. This forced Chief of State Mon Mothma to consider a last-minute plan for the defense of the galactic capital. However, she never got a chance since the combined Imperial armada began bombarding Coruscant's energy shield from orbit, causing extensive damage to the heavily populated cityscape below. Mon Mothma then ordered a general evacuation of the entire population of the capital. Thus, the Empire had retaken its Center and the New Republic resorted to guerilla fighting.[46]

However, after Coruscant had been retaken, the Council decided that it was time to elect a new Galactic Emperor. The various admirals, generals, Moffs, Inquisitorius, COMPNOR and Imperial Security Bureau officials disagreed, and an armed conflict soon broke out amongst the various Imperial factions on Coruscant. The city planet was devastated during the conflict with much of the planet-wide metropolis devastated by the fighting and the deaths of billions. The space around Coruscant was littered with the wreckage of starships which would not be cleared for years. However, eventually the cloned Palpatine appeared and claimed that he was Emperor and ended the Imperial Civil War. Later he decided to create a new empire, since the remnants of the Empire had claimed the galactic capital and recovered the old Galactic Empire which he renamed the Dark Empire.[46]

After Palpatine's final death in 11 ABY at the Battle of Onderon, the New Republic retook the planet and used EVS Construction Droids to clear the rubble and create new, gleaming skyscrapers.[47] However, much of Coruscant's population had fled as result of the fighting and the planet's population during the New Republic era may have been lower. Thus, many of New Republic City's mid-level apartments were unoccupied but still serviceable. However, the shadowy lower levels remained unaffected by the reconstruction programmed and would still remain the haunt of various crime syndicates. Many still struggled to survive in the lower forty or fifty levels.

In 17 ABY, following the Black Fleet Crisis, while Leia Organa Solo was preparing for a speech, the Senate Building was attacked and severely damaged by Brakiss and Dolph, forcing a nearly complete renovation.[48]

Coruscant Lev
Coruscant in the New Republic era

In 19 ABY, following the signing of the Pellaeon–Gavrisom Treaty by Imperial Grand Admiral Gilad Pellaeon and New Republic Chief of State Ponc Gavrisom on the Chimaera,[49] Jedi Master Luke Skywalker and Mara Jade planned to wed on Coruscant. However, one year later, during the wedding ceremony, a group of Imperial partisans attempted to sabotage it including infiltrating the event site and hiring a swoop gang to disrupt the wedding.[50]

The wedding started with a bachelor party in the lower levels before attending a private Jedi ceremony in the renovated Jedi Temple. The public ceremony at Coruscant's Reflection Gardens remained largely peaceful because Booster Terrik and several others kept the swoop gang at bay. Lastly, when the final Imperial partisan attempted to unleash a computer virus, Luke persuaded him to surrender and to join the party.[50]

In 22 ABY, the Second Imperium infiltrated the Coruscant system by using the cloaked Shadow Academy to remain in orbit above the planet, invisible to the eyes of the New Republic military presence and Coruscant Planetary Defense Force. A Second Imperium force consisting of the former TIE pilot Qorl's assault shuttle and several modified TIE Fighters also boarded the bulk cruiser Adamant and fled into hyperspace with its valuable cargo of starship hyperdrives.[51]

The Imperium also sent three Nightsisters named Tamith Kai, Garowyn and Vilas to infiltrate the lower levels and recruit more followers for their cause including the street gang Lost Ones and Zekk. Those discovered to be Force-sensitive became Dark Jedi while others became Stormtroopers and TIE pilots. However, Jedi trainees Jaina Solo, Jacen Solo, Tenel Ka Djo and Lowbacca used several solar mirrors to burn out the Shadow Academy's cloaking systems, exposing it to the New Republic fleet. The station powered its hyperdrive and escaped into hyperspace.[51]

Yuuzhan'tar

"You can see things have changed."
Admiral Traest Kre'fey[src]

Coruscant's darkest hour was at the peak of the Yuuzhan Vong War. During the Fall of Coruscant, the extragalactic Yuuzhan Vong overwhelmed the Republic defenses in three attack waves and conquered the planet. Coruscant, which had been completely covered in city sprawl for millennia, was devastated during the assault. Billions of lives were also lost during the battle.[52]

Battle of Coruscant (Yuuzhan Vong War)
The Millennium Falcon attempts to rescue Borsk Fey'lya during the Fall of Coruscant in 27 ABY.

Many of the landmarks of Coruscant either met their end or were altered to suit the invaders' needs. The Imperial Palace was destroyed when Chief of State Borsk Fey'lya detonated a suicide bomb in his office; the Manarai Mountains, the last part of the planet untouched by cityscape, were blasted into giant craters; the Western Sea, the planet's sole body of water at the time, was turned into a giant Succession pool; the Senate Building became the location of the World Brain, which was in charge of the terraforming of the planet. It was at this event the Yuuzhan Vong Empire was formed, since they had claimed the galactic capital.[53]

The Yuuzhan Vong designated it Yuuzhan'tar, after their ancient homeworld, and terraformed it to overwhelm the city covering its surface and restore a natural ecology. In order to get Coruscant to match their homeworld, large dovin basals pulled the planet closer to Coruscant Prime and biological processes were set forth to create the jungle including increasing the temperature and releasing more moisture into the atmosphere. Soon, nearly the entire planetwide city was covered beneath vegetation while rivers filled canyons where airspeeders had once roamed before. The lower levels were the domain of wildlife brought in from the Yuuzhan Vong galaxy and was where most of the outcast Shamed Ones lived.[53]

Coruscant's three smaller moons were dragged from their original orbits by dovin basals while its largest moon was destroyed by tidal stress created by pulses from other yammosk-linked dovin basals. A similar technique dragged the resulting expanse of dust, rock and hardening magma into a wide spreading asteroid belt known as the Rainbow Bridge, that they were familiar with. The Rainbow Bridge orbited Coruscant around at an angle of 17 degrees from the ecliptic.[53]

The vast majority of the planet's non-Yuuzhan Vong population was shipped offworld in massive refugee ships, though some people did stay behind in the substructure of the city, which called the new Coruscant Necropolis.[53]

When the living planet Zonama Sekot suddenly arrived in the system, it collapsed the Rainbow Bridge, caused another of Coruscant's moons to be ejected from orbit, and pulled Coruscant closer to its original orbit, causing volcanic eruptions and groundquakes for the first time in two thousand years. The newly formed Galactic Federation of Free Alliances retook Coruscant from the Yuuzhan Vong during the Liberation of Coruscant.[54]

Galactic Alliance

"Sometimes I think this planet is nothing but a hellhole."
―Natasi Daala, to an unconscious Nek Bwua'tu[src]
Legacy Coruscant
Coruscant during the Legacy era.

The Galactic Alliance and the Yuuzhan Vong signed a peace treaty in 29 ABY, thus ending the Yuuzhan Vong War and not long after terminated the Yuuzhan Vong Empire and the Peace Brigade. It was decided that Coruscant would be rebuilt as the capital of the Galactic Alliance, returning to the ecumenopolis-style whenever possible while leaving the Yuuzhan Vong terraforming wherever it was as yet unfeasible to change. The World Brain would still remain in the Senate Building, as there was as yet no way to remove it without causing further damage to the planet.

As the government transferred back to the world from Denon in 30 ABY, buildings such as the Senate Building were remodeled, new buildings were constructed such as the Defense Force headquarters and the New Jedi Temple. With this move, the Galactic Alliance had officially taken authority of the galaxy. A large park called Unity Green was also constructed to symbolize the treaty between the Yuuzhan Vong and the Galactic Alliance.[55]

Coruscant began to appear as bustling and thriving as it once did during the Old Republic with the effects of the Yuuzhan Vong War still a reminder, from the growth on skyscrapers, to the altered night sky. Air traffic in skylanes was still the primary mode of transportation.[55]

Around the time of the Second Galactic Civil War in 40 ABY, the Galactic Alliance Guard, a secret police organization, was formed by the Galactic Alliance to spy and monitor on Corellian terrorist activity on Coruscant. The Guard was led by Jacen Solo, a Jedi Knight, a Colonel of the Galactic Alliance military and also an aspiring Sith Lord.[15]

The GAG were responsible for interning and deporting Corellian citizens in Galactic City, and in some cases, executing those taken during the raids. Thus, because of these harsh actions and their dark military uniforms, members of the Guard earned a fast reputation as a uncompromising band of hard-liners among the population. Members of the Coruscant Security Force gave them the nickname "Stormies", thus drawing inevitable comparisons of Jacen Solo to the late Darth Vader and the troops themselves to stormtroopers.[15]

Under Solo's leadership the soldiers saw a likeness within Solo with Vader's own command style, noting that he "never asked of them what he would not do himself." Though necessary in some respects, the GAG's actions were mainly a vehicle for Solo's rise to the position of Sith Lord. This would only deepen the rift between the Galactic Alliance and the Corellian-led secessionist movement.[15]

In the same year, Solo, now the Sith Lord Darth Caedus, was attacked by Kyle Katarn and three other Jedi Knights in front of the Senate building. Katarn was deeply wounded and one of the Knights had lost his life by Caedus's hand, but Katarn and the other Jedi had managed to escape. The outcome came as expected for the Jedi. Unbeknownst to the Sith, Jedi Seha Dorvald planted a tracking device on Caedus's cloak allowing the Jedi hidden on Endor to track Caedus's every move.[56] Following Darth Caedus' death in 41 ABY at the hand of his sister, the Confederation surrendered, ending the war.[57]

Two years later the Unification Summit was held on Coruscant to resolve post-war disputes between the three galactic governments, Natasi Daala of the Galactic Alliance, Turr Phennir of the Confederation, and Jagged Fel of the Imperial Remnant. On the sidelines, the Hapes Consortium of Hapes, led by Tenel Ka Djo, also agreed to unite with the larger galaxy during the signing of the galactic treaty. However Natasi Daala, Chief of State of the Galactic Alliance, ordered Luke Skywalker to be exiled for 10 years for not stopping Darth Caedus. His sentence would be dismissed if he could find the reason as to why Caedus turned to the dark side. During his exile, several Jedi succumbed to Force psychosis which resulted in the involvement of Galactic Alliance Security and caused the Galactic Alliance to take a hostile stance against the New Jedi Order.[9]

Rings of Coruscant
The Rings of Coruscant, a mark left behind by the Yuuzhan Vong occupation.

Chief Daala's draconian reign came to an abrupt end when the Jedi launched a preemptive strike in 44 ABY to remove Daala from power by force. Due to her growing unpopularity with the Jedi Order, the Senate and the citizens of the Galactic Alliance, Daala's fall from grace was virtually uncontested and many were well pleased to be rid of her. In lieu of the unprecedented situation, the Office of the Chief of State was indefinitely suspended and its executive authority was invested in a constitutionally-appointed replacement—the Triumvirate.[58]

The first of the triumvirs were Grand Master Saba Sebatyne of the Jedi Order, Senator Haydnat Treen of the Galactic Alliance Senate, and General Merratt Jaxton of the Galactic Alliance Starfighter Command. Together, the three triumvirs quickly consolidated their rule over the Galactic Alliance from Coruscant, all the while representing the collective interests of the Jedi Order, the Senate and the Armed Forces.[58] Abeloth eventually managed to take power by posing as a potential candidate of the leader of Coruscant, leading the Sith into Coruscant.[59] In addition, a large portion of Coruscant was devastated by seismic activity caused by Abeloth as a means to get away from the Jedi.[60]

New Galactic Empire

"My Jedi brothers, Admiral Stazi, and members of the Galactic Federation of Free Alliances—we have all suffered great losses, but we cannot wait for the inevitable attack on Bastion! The time to attack Coruscant is now!"
―Emperor Roan Fel, motivating the Allies to liberate Coruscant from nearly a decade of Sith rule[src]
SithTempleAttack-SWL19P05
The Temple of the Sith, headquarters of Darth Krayt and the One Sith.

In 130 ABY, control of Coruscant was wrested from the grip of the Galactic Alliance during the final days of the Sith–Imperial War. With the fall of the Alliance and the Jedi retreat to Ossus, the galactic capital fell to the resurgent Empire, by then under the command of Emperor Roan Fel. Bastion was then replaced by Coruscant as the Imperial throne world, thus restoring the urban-wide planet as the heart of the Empire once more. Fel's control over Coruscant did not last for long, however, as the Empire's Sith allies lunched a coup d'état, forcing Fel and his loyalist supporters into exile. With Coruscant under Sith control, the Sith Lord Darth Krayt declared himself Emperor of a new Galactic Empire.[61]

Seven years later, Darth Wyyrlok assassinated Darth Krayt and took control of the Galactic Empire during the Second Imperial Civil War.[62] Krayt, however, managed to cheat death and returned to Coruscant a year later to reclaim his throne. Wyyrlok was slain in the Sith Temple and with his death, Coruscant and the Empire were once more under the rule of Krayt.[63]

Though the Dark Lord's return resulted in the Empire's rejuvenated war effort against its enemies, Krayt's revival also pushed them to the point of desperation. Thus, the Empire-in-exile, Galactic Alliance Remnant and the New Jedi Order combined their strengths to launch a major offensive on the Imperial capital. Their objective was to seize Coruscant in the hopes of destroying the Galactic Empire along with its Emperor and his Sith followers.[64]

The allies ultimately emerged victorious against the Sith. With Coruscant's liberation and the final death of Darth Krayt, the One Sith quickly lost their hold over the galaxy as the Empire collapsed into ruin without the leadership of its Emperor. The surviving members of the One Sith fled into hiding while the victorious allies united as one to form the Galactic Federation Triumvirate, headed by Master K'Kruhk of the New Jedi Order, Admiral Gar Stazi of the Alliance, and Empress Marasiah Fel of the Empire. Together, the new triumvirs effectively ruled over a unified galaxy.[65]

Inhabitants

Citizens

Coruscant was home to a variety of species though humans made up the majority. Most of the planet's native species were either extinct or lived in the lowest parts of the Underworld by the time of the Old Republic. The planet was thought to be the home of humans. Though not all well known citizens were always born on Coruscant, many considered the planet their home.[5]

Government and politics

"The planet thrives on the changing tide of politics, providing a stable anchor through damaging rebellions, the long-overdue fall of the corrupt Old Republic, and the sweeping introduction of the Emperor's resplendent New Order."
―Pollux Hax[src]
Cityhall
The City Municipal Authorities Building

Until 27 ABY, Galactic/Imperial City, had a Mayor[4] who led the City Municipal Authority.[8] Several of the planet's sectors also had their own local mayors and governments. The Yuuzhan Vong took direct control over Coruscant establishing a theocratic dictatorship without a local government. This lasted till the Galactic Alliance retook the planet from the Vong in 29 ABY.[14] The Galactic Alliance established the Galactic City Authority which managed Coruscant's government and the planet's day to day affairs.[15]

During the reigns of the Old Republic and the Galactic Alliance, Coruscant was represented in the Senate. As the center of galactic government, Coruscant thrived on politics and the business of government. However, this also opened up huge opportunities for greed and corruption.[15][66] The Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic did exercise some control over Coruscant's administration though he did not interfere with the day-to-day affairs of government.[66] This practice continued well throughout the era of the Galactic Empire with the Emperor, but Moffs were placed in command over the mayor of Imperial City in the form of the Imperial Sector.[67] During the New Republic and the Galactic Alliance, the Chief of State exercised overall control of Coruscant but stayed out of day-to-day affairs.[15]

Law enforcement and public safety

"We're the law on Coruscant. Not the Jedi."
―CSF Detective Gwad Raatu[src]
Secforce
Coruscant police droids and Coruscant Guard clone troopers

The Coruscant Security Force was the primary law enforcement agency for Coruscant during the Galactic Republic, the New Republic, and the Galactic Alliance. During the Galactic Empire, the Coruscant Guard was placed in overall command of Coruscant's security but the CSF continued as a police force though subservient to the Guard. The CSF's duties included regular patrols of the various districts and neighborhoods of Galactic City, crowd control at major events and public disturbances, criminal investigations, maintaining the skylanes, counter-terror and counter-espionage operations, and responding to various other emergencies and situations.[5][67][34][68] The CoCo District maintained its own constabulary force.[69] Fire fighting, rescue and cleanup was performed by the Coruscant Rescue Ops. Each planetary district maintained their own teams. Their duties were later continued by Coruscant Fire and Rescue during the Galactic Alliance.[15][70]

Entertainment and sports

Vos Gesal Street
The Uscru Entertainment District

Coruscant had many attractions to offer its visitors and inhabitants. Chief among them was the Uscru Entertainment District.[71] In it could be found the Galaxies Opera House, a favorite location of then-Chancellor Palpatine. Coruscant was also home to the Coruscant Opera, Monument Plaza, and the Galactic Museum, all of which were popular tourist sites providing timeless entertainment and enjoyment.[5]

Chin-Bret was one of the most popular sports on Coruscant during the last years of the Galactic Republic. The sport was played by chin-bretiers who carried pikers to play the game. The sport was most famously played at the T'Chuk Arena.[72]

In 3 BBY, Coruscant hosted the Galactic Games. During the event, an assassination attempt was made on Emperor Palpatine.[2]

Locations

Senate District

SenateDistrict-POP
The Senate District

The Senate District served as the de facto government capital for Coruscant. It included locations such as the Senate Building, the Republic Executive Building, the Galactic Justice Center, 500 Republica, and the Galactic Museum. Throughout the planet's history, the Senate District was the site of numerous battles in several wars including the Great Galactic War, the Clone Wars, the Galactic Civil War, and the Yuuzhan Vong War. During the latter, the District became the center of the Vong Empire with the Senate Building serving as the house for the Well of the World Brain, which controlled the Vongforming of the planet. After the war, the District once again became the center of political activity and returned to its former glory under the Old Republic.[5]

Imperial Palace

The Imperial Palace was originally the Palace of the Republic. During the Galactic Empire, it became Emperor Palpatine's official residence and was drastically expanded, becoming the largest building on Coruscant. When the New Republic captured the planet, it was converted as the main government center and the residence for the Chief of State. However it was destroyed in the Yuuzhan Vong attack, partially when Chief of State Borsk Fey'lya detonated a bomb in his office.[5]

Jedi Temple

JediTemple-Deceived
The Jedi Temple

The Jedi Temple was the seat of the Jedi Order for thousands of years. Throughout its history it was damaged several times. During the Galactic Empire it was left standing, though a damaged and burned shell of its former glory. Luke Skywalker, upon re-establishing the New Jedi Order, built the Jedi Headquarters on top of the roof of the Temple. However, it and the Temple were razed to the ground during the Yuuzhan Vong attack. The Galactic Alliance rebuilt it as the New Jedi Temple, an exact replica of the old Temple, though with an added glass pyramid structure above. It remained this way until the One Sith turned it into the Sith Temple.[5]

Coruscant's Underworld

The Coruscant Underworld was the area below the glittering skyscrapers of Galactic City. It was filled with crime and despair but also with entertainment of various kinds. It was in effect a world of its own with many areas controlled by gangs.[5]

Manarai Mountains

One of the few pieces of Coruscant's landmass that were left untouched were the Manarai Mountains, twin peaks that stuck up out of the ground near the famous Imperial Palace. The Manarai Mountains included the tallest peak, Umate; many floating restaurants; Monument Plaza; and were home to the Flames of Umate cult. It was beneath the Manarai Mountains that the Lusankya was hidden. The mountains were destroyed during the Yuuzhan Vong assault on Coruscant.[4]

Planetary defense systems

Golan-Comparison-TLCSB
Scale comparison of the Golan stations and an Imperial-class Star Destroyer.

As of the Battle of Coruscant during the Yuuzhan Vong War, Coruscant had a four tier defense system. The first and uppermost tier was a series of mines. These were deactivated during the battle at the behest of Lando Calrissian, because he believed that they would do more harm than good, only to be reactivated by Calrissian later when the attacking Vong fleet was in the midst of the minefield.[52]

The second tier was a series of Golan Defense Platforms, mostly Golan II types. The command platform was dubbed "Orbital Defense One" and was larger than its cousins. Most of these were destroyed when the Vong broke through New Republic lines, including Orbital Defense One.[52]

The third tier was a massive planetary shield, controlled by a series of relays on the surface of Coruscant. The shield seems to have worked by some kind of dispersion of energy released onto the shield. The Vong employed a tactic which involved waves of kamikaze ships crashing into the shield, overloading the relays, and effectively bringing it down.[52]

The fourth and last tier was an array of rooftop turbolasers, akin to the point-defense systems on some capital ships. Some were operated automatically, others by Human gunners and astromech droids. Also counted was the proton bomb in the Chief of State's office, which was detonated when Vong soldiers occupied the Imperial Palace. The explosion destroyed the building housing the office, and the data towers on Coruscant.[52]

Economic and political rivalries

Coruscant was not unique as a galactic hub in the galaxy after hyperdrive became common usage in 25,100 BBY. 53 years after the formation of the Republic, the term "Whomever controls Coruscant controls the galaxy" was coined. During the Old Republic era and beyond, there were several urbanized planets and moons that rivaled Coruscant economically, and some that were other major governmental centers.[5]

  • Nal Hutta and Nar Shaddaa: In 15,000 BBY, the Hutts, having abandoned their homeworld of Varl, took control of the planet and its moon, which were located on popular trade routes, particularly the Ootmian Pabol, and Nar Shaddaa became completely urbanized. Eventually trade routes shifted, and the planet and the moon lost their economic opportunities. Nar Shaddaa became a haven for smugglers and criminals.[5]
  • Empress Teta: In 5,000 BBY, the planet, then known as Koros Major, rose to the forefront of galactic events as the Old Sith Empire attacked it. The Jedi repelled the invaders, and since then it has been considered the capital of the Deep Core, even being called the "Coruscant of the Deep Core." A bastion of civilization in the impenetrable and treacherous Deep Core, it remained a major center of commerce during the times of the Empire, New Republic and Galactic Alliance. It was also intended as the original redoubt for the New Republic government to flee to during the Yuuzhan Vong War, but eventually Mon Calamari became favored over the ancient planet.[5]
  • Taris: The planet was situated on the Perlemian Trade Route and became a major economic center in ages past, beginning in 4,300 BBY. However, in 4,156 BBY, several new, shorter trade routes were discovered, rendering Taris obsolete. Without the support of the Republic, the planet fell into ruin and disrepair. Taris's surface was devastated by Darth Malak in 3,956 BBY, during the Jedi Civil War.[5]
  • Eriadu: Located on the Hydian Way, this prosperous and highly polluted world served as the capital of the Outer Rim in the waning days of the Old Republic, the time of the Empire, and during the rise of the New Republic. However, it lost its glory after the Yuuzhan Vong War.[5]
  • Denon: Throughout the waning days of the Galactic Republic, the Galactic Empire and the New Republic, Denon continued to thrive in the Inner Rim. After the end of the Yuuzhan Vong War, while the Galactic Alliance and the Yuuzhan Vong were rebuilding Coruscant, Denon was chosen to serve as the temporary capital of the Alliance in 29 ABY. By 30 ABY, the galactic capital had returned to Coruscant.[5]
  • Muunilinst: This economic powerhouse had backed the galactic currencies since the inception of the Galactic Credit Standard and remained at the center of the galactic economy. Although not rivaling Coruscant politically, its economic power remained as strong as ever, if not stronger as shown after the Battle of Muunilinst which led the galaxy to the brink of financial ruin. After this it became the financial center of the Empire and remained in this position for at least the duration of the New Order. After the Yuuzhan Vong war Muunilinst, along with Mygeeto, no longer had a tie in with Coruscant and by 40 ABY the Imperial Remnant had control of its credit harvest.[5]

Behind the scenes

File:CoruscantGlobeE1.jpg
View of Coruscant from Episode I.

Coruscant first appeared in the Expanded Universe and was called such for the first time in Timothy Zahn's Heir to the Empire in 1991. Coruscant wasn't seen on screen until the 1997 Special Edition release of Return of the Jedi, and then later appeared in the prequel trilogy. Coruscant is therefore one of the few EU elements that made its way in to the films.

The name "Coruscant" comes from the Latin verb "coruscare" meaning "to sparkle" or "to glitter." Traditionally pronounced with a hard 'c' – ko'-rus-kant' – the word is pronounced Ko'-ru-sant in the Star Wars universe. Uniquely, in the Chuck Benson reading of the unabridged Thrawn Trilogy, it is pronounced "kuhruskant."

Coruscant, which was originally to be called Alderaan, was to appear in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, but the budget wouldn't allow for it, so much of the planned action was moved to the Death Star and Alderaan became the name of Leia Organa's home planet. The concept of seeing the Empire's home world, renamed Had Abbadon, came up again in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, and the concept of the entire planet being a city came up for the first time. However, it was realized that such a city on screen would be impossible given the technical limitations at the time, and so the idea was abandoned.

In various novels, characters aligned with the Empire refer to Coruscant as Imperial Center. Within the stories, this is explained as an administrative renaming undertaken to emphasize the differences between the Galactic Republic and its successor state, the Empire.

Some fans, despite the use of the words "A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away" in the opening of each Star Wars film, have imagined that the Star Wars saga takes place in the far future, and speculated that Coruscant is a futuristic Earth. However, Coruscant has four moons to Earth's one, and is the sixth planet rather than the third from its sun. Moreover, Earth is much farther from the core of the Milky Way galaxy than Coruscant is supposed to be (25,000 to 28,000 light years to Coruscant's 10,000 light years).

The PC game Star Wars: Rebellion mistakenly places Coruscant in the Sesswenna sector, itself a misspelling of the Seswenna sector of the Core. The Seswenna sector is actually located in the Outer Rim.

The webcomic Irregular Webcomic! has made several jokes about the improbability of Coruscant.

Inconsistencies

TIEFighterCoruscant
A different version of Coruscant, as seen in the Star Wars: TIE Fighter Collector's CD-ROM.

In the large volume of material that exists relating to Coruscant, there are conflicting statements about the ecumenopolis; inconsistencies are found mainly in sources released before 1999 when Coruscant has been established in The Phantom Menace.

Most sources, including all illustrations, show Coruscant as having negligible surface water, save for the ice caps. However, the Black Fleet Crisis trilogy states that Coruscant has two continents, a large one that contains Imperial City and a smaller one. More than half of this version of Coruscant is ocean. No other source follows this version, though The Thrawn Trilogy Sourcebook does refer to distinct continents, and the discrepancy is usually solved by referring to the alleged ocean as the artificial Western Sea.

The intro of the 1994 game Star Wars: TIE Fighter shows an orbital view of Coruscant, very faithful to the appearance of the planet in the prequel movies as would be seen five years later. However the Collector's edition, which features a remade intro, shows an Earth-like Coruscant, blue with clouds.

Another depiction of Coruscant, shown in the Shadows of the Empire comic, shows Coruscant as a terrestrial planet as opposed to an ecumenopolis, including green continents and a very large body of water.

Population

One of the most notable inconsistencies concerns the planet's population. Most recent Expanded Universe sources, such as the novel Traitor and the sourcebooks Inside the Worlds of Star Wars Episode I and Coruscant and the Core Worlds, have stated a population of one trillion for Coruscant. At the last planetary census around 19 BBY, the population was around one trillion, counting only full-time registered citizens. Including the omitted, such as temporary workers and transients, the real population is said to have been triple the original count.[16]

Inspiration

The concept of a city covering an entire planet is not entirely new. The planet Trantor in Isaac Asimov's Foundation novels is probably the first fictional planet to be totally urbanized. Indeed, one of the draft names of Coruscant was Jhantor, in homage to Asimov's work. Later, Expanded Universe sources even used the name Trantor for a planet much like Coruscant.

It has also been speculated that certain aspects of Coruscant were inspired from the look of 2019 Los Angeles in the 1982 Ridley Scott film Blade Runner, including the gigantic pyramid of Tyrell Corporation.

There is also speculation that the Coruscant chase scene in Episode II: Attack of the Clones was heavily inspired from Luc Besson's The Fifth Element.

Coruscant chosen for the films

Regarding Coruscant appearing in the prequels, Timothy Zahn had this to say at Celebration III:

"Just to make it clear, I did not invent the planet…George Lucas had invented the planetwide city a long time ago. When I was starting the Thrawn Trilogy, they told me to coordinate with the West End Games source material, and they had it listed as the Imperial Planet. Well nobody names a planet 'Imperial Planet,' so I thought it needed a name, so I picked the word that means glittering: 'Coruscant.' Apparently, when it came time to choose a name [for the films], people persuaded George to go with Coruscant and be done with it. So I felt very vindicated -- the tail wagging the dog. It was an honor to be slipped into the movies this way."
Coruscantpanorama
Panoramic view of the planetary cityscape of Coruscant from the High Council Chamber.

Appearances

Wiki-shrinkable
Wookieepedia has 431 images related to Coruscant.

Non-canon appearances

Sources

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 SWCustom-2011 Star Wars: The Essential Atlas Online Companion on StarWars.com (article) (backup link on Archive.org)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 WizardsoftheCoast Coruscant: Center of the Empire on Wizards.com (original article link, backup links on Archive.org)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 The Essential Atlas
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 Coruscant and the Core Worlds
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 The Complete Star Wars Encyclopedia
  6. 6.0 6.1 Shadows of the Empire Sourcebook
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Star Wars: Empire at War: Prima Official Game Guide
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Star Wars: Complete Locations
  9. 9.0 9.1 Outcast (novel)
  10. CloneWarsLogoMini Star Wars: Clone Wars – "Chapter 24"
  11. 11.0 11.1 Star Wars: Empire at War: Forces of Corruption
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 The New Essential Chronology
  13. The Last of the Jedi: Underworld
  14. 14.0 14.1 Destiny's Way
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 Bloodlines
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Coruscant Nights I: Jedi Twilight
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (novel)
  18. The Paradise Snare
  19. Inside the Worlds of Star Wars Episode I
  20. Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith
  21. Star Wars: TIE Fighter
  22. Enemy Lines II: Rebel Stand
  23. 23.0 23.1 Star Wars: The Old Republic
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Timeline 1: Treaty of Coruscant
  25. Shadows of Coruscant
  26. Star Wars: Obi-Wan
  27. Databank title Yarael Poof in the Databank (content now obsolete; backup link on Archive.org)
  28. Ando, Sy Myrth Secede - HoloNet News Vol. 531 45
  29. Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones
  30. Star Wars: The New Droid Army
  31. Star Wars: Republic 61: Dead Ends
  32. TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Heroes on Both Sides"
  33. Star Wars: Republic 63: Striking from the Shadows
  34. 34.0 34.1 TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Senate Murders"
  35. 35.0 35.1 TCW mini logo Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "The Zillo Beast Strikes Back"
  36. Star Wars: Republic 72: Trackdown, Part 1
  37. Star Wars: Republic 73: Trackdown, Part 2
  38. Labyrinth of Evil
  39. Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
  40. Mara Jade: By the Emperor's Hand
  41. 41.0 41.1 X-wing: Wedge's Gamble
  42. X-wing: The Krytos Trap
  43. The Thrawn Trilogy Sourcebook
  44. The Courtship of Princess Leia
  45. 45.0 45.1 The Last Command
  46. 46.0 46.1 Dark Empire
  47. Jedi Search
  48. The New Rebellion
  49. Vision of the Future
  50. 50.0 50.1 Star Wars: Union
  51. 51.0 51.1 Young Jedi Knights: The Lost Ones
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 52.4 Star by Star
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 Traitor
  54. The Unifying Force
  55. 55.0 55.1 Dark Nest I: The Joiner King
  56. Fury
  57. Invincible (novel)
  58. 58.0 58.1 Conviction
  59. Ascension
  60. Apocalypse
  61. Star Wars: Legacy 8: Allies
  62. Star Wars: Legacy 48: Extremes, Part 1
  63. Star Wars: Legacy—War 1
  64. Star Wars: Legacy—War 5
  65. Star Wars: Legacy—War 6
  66. 66.0 66.1 Cloak of Deception
  67. 67.0 67.1 Star Wars: Empire 1: Betrayal, Part 1
  68. Republic Commando: Triple Zero
  69. HNNsmall Coco District Jailbreak AlertHoloNet News Vol. 531 56 (content now unavailable; backup links 1 2 on Archive.org)
  70. Databank title Coruscant fire fighter in the Databank (content now obsolete; backup link on Archive.org)
  71. Inside the Worlds of Star Wars: Attack of the Clones
  72. The Cestus Deception

See also

External links

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