The Galactic Alliance Senate or Galactic Alliance Assembly was, during the time of the Galactic Federation of Free Alliances, the leading legislative body of the galaxy. The Senate was the successor of the New Republic Senate of the New Republic. The Alliance Senate met in the Senate Building on Coruscant as did its predecessors.
In comparison to the Galactic Senate of the Old Republic and the New Republic Senate, the Galactic Alliance Senate possessed greatly reduced executive functions and acted primarily as the government's legislative organ.
The Galactic Alliance Senate was the ruling body of the Galactic Federation of Free Alliances, succeeding the New Republic Senate and was led by a Chief of State. The Alliance and its governing body were temporarily based on Denon following the culmination of the Yuuzhan Vong War, but five years later, it had been relocated to the traditional galactic capital of Coruscant. The Galactic Alliance was reorganized from the New Republic by Chief of State Cal Omas in the final years of the war against the Yuuzhan Vong, largely in response to the corruption within the government that allowed the Vong to steadily defeat the Republic.
Omas' reorganization of the system of government saw a greater level of separation of powers. The office of the Chief of State was installed with a majority of the executive responsibilities previously possessed by the New Republic Senate. As a result the Galactic Alliance Senate held few executive powers, while maintaining all of their legislative functions, causing it to become little hindrance in the Alliance's war effort against the Vong, as its predecessor had been to the New Republic.
In addition, by bringing the Imperial Remnant and the Hapes Consortium into the fold, the Alliance achieved what no other government since the Old Republic had achieved; a unified galactic government. The Alliance was also originally built on strong relations with the New Jedi Order; allowing six of its members to serve on the High Council which was formed to advise the Chief of State on directing the war effort. The High Council also included several high ranking Senators and military officials.
The Alliance, under Chief Omas, ultimately proved victorious in the war; indeed, it could be said that the reorganization of the New Republic into the Alliance was instrumental in ensuring victory in the face of defeat.
With the war over, the Senate and the Alliance began financing huge reconstructive efforts. With executive duties largely in the hands of the Chief of State, the New Jedi Order seemed to advise him directly, rather than acting as responsible to the Senate as the Old Order had. The Senate was located on Denon for a time, though by 35 ABY had relocated to Coruscant.
With the rediscovery of the Killiks came the destructive effects of the Dark Nest's black membrosia. Confounded by the death of Supreme Commander Sien Sovv in an incident involving membrosia, relations between the Alliance government and the Killik Colonies soured. This also caused rising tensions with the New Jedi Order, who permanently withdrew from the High Council, in favor of creating a more centralized Jedi High Council to take formal control of the Order. As such, the Galactic Alliance Advisory Council, including several Senators, became Chief Omas' official advisory board.
Ultimately, the Jedi Order and the Galactic Alliance Defense Force proved able to defeat the Dark Nest, quelling the Killik's and restoring peace to the galaxy for a short time.
In the midst of tensions between Corellia and the Alliance, Chief Omas created the Galactic Alliance Guard, whose leader Jacen Solo was granted extraordinary powers by the Senate so as to allow the GAG to successfully fulfill their purpose. Solo who was in fact a fledging Sith Lord manipulated the Senate, similarly to Palpatine decades earlier, into granting him emergency powers.
Using a power granted to him by the Senate, Solo was able to remove heads of state; including Chief Omas himself if they became a threat to the Galactic Alliance. After obtaining evidence that Omas was committing treason, Solo removed him from office. Solo's ally Cha Niathal was then promoted to Chief of State and instituted a joint-Chief system; allowing the Sith Lord to rule the Alliance along with her.
Niathal ultimately became disturbed by Solo's extreme tactics however, and created a breakaway Alliance-in-exile which joined the Jedi Coalition in a bid to defeat Solo, now known as Darth Caedus. With Caedus' death, the Senate agreed to the ascension of Natasi Daala as the new Chief of State, and continued to act as the legislative organ of government under her.
There were substantial differences between the Galactic Alliance Senate and the Old and New Republic Senates, making it similar to the Imperial Senate. The Alliance Senate simply elected and had oversight of the Chief of State, but it had little say in the actual executive branch. It's role was confined to simply legislative. Also, there was an independent judiciary, which was intended to keep some of the more corrupt members of the Senate in line. They did, however, rely on the New Jedi Order's High Council for advice.
Despite these new limits, and even at this early stage, the more greedy and selfish politicians and bureaucrats were already becoming adept at manipulating the Senate, forcing the Jedi Knights under Luke Skywalker's direction to spread themselves thin across the Galactic Alliance to settle disputes of all kinds.
The Senate was headed by the Chief of State alongside the Chair of the Senate. It mainly consisted of representative assemblymen. Primary members are represented in the Senate by a governor-delegate, or Senator. Each Senator has a single vote, regardless of the population represented. Affiliate members are represented on Coruscant by a Legate, who may speak in general sessions of the Senate, but may not vote on official Senate business (to avoid dual representation) or serve in the Senate's various working bodies.
The Inner Rim Caucus was a political faction in the Senate.
- The New Jedi Order: Force Heretic I: Remnant (First appearance)
- Dark Nest I: The Joiner King (Mentioned only)
- Dark Nest II: The Unseen Queen (Mentioned only)
- Legacy of the Force: Bloodlines
- Legacy of the Force: Tempest (Mentioned only)
- Legacy of the Force: Sacrifice
- Legacy of the Force: Fury (Mentioned only)
- Legacy of the Force: Revelation (Mentioned only)
- Fate of the Jedi: Outcast
- Fate of the Jedi: Allies
- Fate of the Jedi: Ascension
- Fate of the Jedi: Apocalypse