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Galactic Senate

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Galactic Congress redirects here. You may be looking for the Rebel assembly on Zhotta 3.
Senate seal
Galactic Senate
General information


Members
Headquarters

Senate Building, Senate District, Galactic City, Coruscant

Historical information
Date founded

25,053 BBY

Date reorganized

19 BBY (as the Imperial Senate)

Date dissolved

0 BBY

Date restored

6.5 ABY (as New Republic Senate)

Other information
Era(s)
Affiliation
"There is no civility, only politics."
―Palpatine[src]

The Galactic Senate, also referred to as the Republic Senate, Galactic Congress, Republic Congress, or Old Senate (during the time of the New Republic), was the legislative and executive branch of the Galactic Republic that was located on Coruscant. Its primary duties were to mediate any disputes between star systems, worlds and cultures, to regulate trade between systems, to protect and care for citizens in need and to provide mutual defense in face of threats to the Republic.

HistoryEdit

"The Republic is not what it once was. The Senate is full of greedy, squabbling delegates. There is no interest in the common good."
Senator Palpatine to Queen Amidala[src]

The Galactic Senate was a place where all the Republic's elected and appointed senators and representatives from the farthest reaches of the galaxy would discuss major problems and come to decisions. The Galactic Constitution invested the Senate with the power to regulate trade, maintain maps of the galaxy's hyperspace routes, and to maintain the Republic's military. It was still a relatively weak body at the end of the Old Sith Wars. Following the Ruusan Reformation, a large amount of power was removed from the Supreme Chancellor and granted to the Senate, which although resulting in greater regional involvement in galactic politics, also resulted in increased gridlock and corruption. One of the privileges a Supreme Chancellor still possessed was his or her ability to call an Extraordinary Session.

Originally the Senate was Planetary and welcomed any planet with a large enough population until the Core was occupied by the early Republic. Then the Republic was politically divided into sectors containing up to 50 inhabited systems, small enough so that they wouldn't expand into separatist empires; the Senate then was apartised by sectorial Senators, representing the planetary Senators.[1]

After the First Alsakan Conflict in 17,000 BBY, the Senate was composed of seated Senators with full rights of address, and unseated Senators, who had to petition for such rights. That made the Senate viable but bred corruption since unseated Senators traded most of their votes.[1]

IrateChagrianSenator-Timeline6

The Chagrian senator during the Great Galactic War

The Senate's role changed somewhat over the centuries. As of the Old Sith Wars it played a slightly more passive role regarding internal affairs. While recognized as the central government of the Republic and deferred to in matters of galactic policy, the Senate's power over many members was more that of a mediator than a ruling body. Negotiation and coercion were staples of its activities.

The terrorist organization known as The Flail attempted to overthrow the Senate in 33 BBY, accusing it of corruption; but Chancellor Finis Valorum's forces disbanded The Flail.[2]

Before the start of the Clone Wars, the Senate suffered a shutdown, with corporations controlling it. The majority of the senators around the time of the Invasion of Naboo became corrupt, changing their affiliations based on their own interests. Eventually, through a series of various organizational reforms in response to the Separatist threat, the charismatic Palpatine took control of the Senate. During the Clone Wars, Sate Pestage was in charge of the Senate's executive agenda.

During the time of the Empire, the Galactic Senate was known as the Imperial Senate. However, this Senate was largely powerless, with its members discouraged from disagreeing with the Emperor's wishes. Immediately before the Battle of Yavin, Palpatine officially dissolved the Imperial Senate. It was not until 6.5 ABY that the New Republic restored it, soon after liberating Coruscant twice.

OrganizationEdit

"Answer: There are a lot of politicians on Coruscant, master. I could spend decades slaughtering them and still not make a dent."
HK-47[src]
SenateGuardCommando-GAW

Senate Guard and Commando, protectors of the Senate

The Senate was led by a Supreme Chancellor, elected by a vote of the Senate from amongst its delegates. He had little real authority over the Senate other than prerogative to call for a special session and could be removed by a vote of no confidence. The Vice Chair, also elected and removed by the Senate, wielded far more power being empowered to open, close and moderate debate on each motion, which allowed him to control agenda within the Senate.

The Galactic Senate was made up of over 2,000 congressmen: governor-delegates (referred to as senators) and representatives, representing sectors, systems, individual planets, or even Corporation or Guilds. Some were elected directly, while others were appointed by a planet's ruler (or even were the planet's ruler). Diplomats, religious figures, local political leaders, and other prominent people could also address the Senate as part of a senatorial delegation. Senators, however, were the only members with voting power, with the Representatives organized into the Galactic Representative Commission, although they could be appointed by their absent Senators as their temporary substitute, and still could have a minor voice in Senate business.

The full Senate convened on a regular basis, although the meetings were unscheduled in advance, and could sometimes even reach up to one hundred full assemblies per year. The order of the day was composed of a series of day-long meetings in committees and subcommittes in formal and informal situations. Most of the negotiation and diplomacy, however, happened behind the scenes, in the ambassadorial offices behind the Senate platforms.[3]

Before the invasion of Naboo, Republic-member worlds could join or become signatories to various federations or groups. Often, smaller worlds would give their voting power over to these Federations in exchange for lucrative trade deals. This allowed various corporations, guilds, federations, and businesses to gain extra power in the Senate.[4]

The Senate was divided into many committees and subcommittees, each to handle various issues of Galactic government and lawmaking. Some of them were:

RepublicFinancialReformBill-POP

The Senate chamber in 21 BBY

In addition to the formal committees, there were informal political factions in the Senate as well. In the years leading up to the Battle of Naboo, there were two main ones: the Core faction and the Rim faction.

During the Clone Wars, the supermajority of the Senate supported Palpatine, allowing him to amend the Galactic Constitution and be granted more emergency powers.

PowersEdit

"I am the Senate!"
Palpatine[src]
Palpatine NEGTC

Supreme Chancellor Palpatine, last leader of the Galactic Republic

The Senate was the legislative and executive power of the Republic (although at various times by the end of the Republic's existence, the Office of the Supreme Chancellor held supreme dictator Legislative, Executive, and Judicial authority). It also had limited judicial authority, presumably for high-profile plaintiffs or cases too controversial for (or tried in) the Supreme Court. Such cases included trying senators for treason (as wished by Vien'sai'Malloc); crimes against civilization (the interrupted trial of Ulic Qel-Droma); and presumably corruption and treason of the Supreme Chancellor (as Anakin Skywalker wished for Palpatine).

Senate-related documentsEdit

The following are documents passed by the Galactic Senate or relating to its functioning.

ArchitectureEdit

Senate buildings

The Senate Building with the Republic Executive Building in the foreground.

Blue Glass Arrow See also: Senate Hall

Thousands of years before the fall of the Republic, the Senate was housed in a hall building. At some point after the end of the Great Sith War, the Senate was relocated to the more advanced and spacious Senate Building.

The exterior portion of the Senate Building consisted of a large courtyard in front of the structure itself, a huge mushroom-shaped building.

The interior portion was a multiple-story room with thousands of chairs for senators from each world. In the center, the Supreme Chancellor would sit with his or her aides.

Behind the scenesEdit

Senatebldg

The exterior of the Senate Building.

The Galactic Senate was first mentioned in the novelization of A New Hope, ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster and published in 1976.

In background material composed by George Lucas in 1977 for licensees of the Expanded Universe, the "Republican Senate" represented a total of 24,372 systems and elected a Chancellor to a four year term. There was a term limit of one term. During a crisis, a Chancellor extended his term to 12 years and finally declared himself Emperor, first by rhetorically attacking the bureaucracy and then by aligning himself with it. The Jedi sided with the Senate after it attempted to impeach him. This story appears to be the germ of much of the events of the Prequel trilogy.[5]

AppearancesEdit

SourcesEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

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