- "When we look back upon the war against the Empire—upon the billions of lives lost—sometimes it seems as though nothing could ever have been worth the terrible price we paid. But when we think of those people who perished in the conflict, let us remember that they died for justice. For liberty. For the extraordinary peace we now enjoy. This is what we fought for."
- ―Senator Tai-Lin Garr
The New Republic (NR), also known as simply the Republic or the Alliance, was the government formed from the ashes of conflict during the waning years of the Galactic Civil War, absorbing the political and military leadership of the former Alliance to Restore the Republic after the Battle of Endor. The New Republic followed in the footsteps of the Galactic Republic, commonly known in that time as the "Old Republic," and fought the shattered forces of the Galactic Empire. Unlike its predecessor, the New Republic's capital was not based on Coruscant, and after a brief stint on Chandrila, hosted its capital on a variety of member worlds on a rotating basis, chosen through democratic election.
Following the end of the war with the signing of the Galactic Concordance, the Republic hastily passed the Military Disarmament Act seeking to prevent a repeat of galactic history; and instead focused on strengthening the forces of local planetary governments and reconstruction efforts to worlds ravaged by the conflict. A fraction of the size of the former Galactic Republic and Empire, the New Republic remained on friendly terms with a majority of galactic systems owing to the egalitarian processes that it embodied into its political message. Briefly inhabiting a wing of New Republic politics, the First Order would eventually secede from the greater body once tensions reached a breaking point. While many applauded the motion, others realized that without Republic oversight, the First Order would return to the draconian ways of its predecessor. With a galactic hunger for peace, many senators—some receiving large sums of credits from their First Order beneficiaries—dismissed notions that the First Order posed a threat to the Republic, believing that reports of its strength were exaggerated by the 'warmonger' Leia Organa and her Resistance. With the Order's true intentions finally revealed following destruction of the Republic's capital in the Hosnian system, the Republic stood on the brink of yet another galactic war.
- "In order to ensure the security and continuing stability, the Republic will be reorganized into the first Galactic Empire, for a safe and secure society!"
- ―Palpatine declares the fall of the Old Republic and the rise of the New Order
For over a thousand years, the galaxy had been governed through a democratic union called the Galactic Republic. Centered on the capital world of Coruscant, the Republic was ruled by the Galactic Senate, which in turn was led by an elected Supreme Chancellor. With the assistance of the Jedi Order, a peaceful religious order of Force wielders, who possessed seemingly supernatural power through connection the Cosmic and Living Force, the Republic enjoyed a millennia of peace and prosperity. However, as time went on, the government of the Republic became bloated and corrupt. The Senate, filled with self-serving politicians, was unable to deal effectively with disputes that arose between the member worlds of the Republic. With growing protest from the Outer Systems over one-sided trade deals and centuries of economic exploitation, about ten years before the eruption of the Clone Wars, a dispute over plasma exports and the taxation of Free Trade Zones in the galaxy caused the Trade Federation to invade the planet Naboo. Although the Jedi, with the assistance of the Naboo people and the Gungans, were able to end the occupation, then senator of Naboo Sheev Palpatine, secretly the Dark Lord of the Sith Darth Sidious,—part of the Sith Order and thus the ancient enemy of the Jedi Order—took advantage of the conflict which he had secretly organized leading to his successful election as Supreme Chancellor. Palpatine then manipulated the rise of a Secessionist Movement during which worlds who had become disaffected with the Republic seceded to form the Confederacy of Independent Systems. The discovery by the Jedi of the Separatist Droid Army, as well as a clone army commissioned for the Republic in secret by Palpatine, was to start the Battle of Geonosis—the first major war in a thousand years, the Clone Wars. For three years the galaxy fell into chaos, and for three years Palpatine amassed more emergency powers to the Office of the Chancellor, and made changes to the Galactic Constitution.
When the Jedi discovered Palpatine's identity as the Sith Lord Darth Sidious, a botched arrest led to the young Jedi known as the Chosen One—Anakin Skywalker—interfering, eventually succumbing to the dark side of the Force. Inducted into the Sith Order as Sidious' apprentice and becoming known as Darth Vader, Palpatine issued Order 66, using the Jedi attempt to arrest him appear as if a 'Jedi rebellion' had occurred, and forcing the clone troopers to execute their Jedi Generals using pre-installed bio-chips to force compliance. Palpatine then called together the Senate in an emergency session of Congress and announced that a New Order would be established; the Republic would be reorganized into the Galactic Empire ruled by an Imperial Senate, and led by noneother than himself as its first Galactic Emperor. When it became evident that the Emperor planned on continuing his despotic tendencies, a small group of resistance fighters were organized by such figures as Senators Mon Mothma and Bail Organa, eventaully forming into the Alliance to Restore the Republic. These resistance fighters resolved to depose the Emperor from his rule over the galaxy and restore the rule of the Old Republic.
Just prior to the Battle of Yavin, some nineteen years after the end of the Clone Wars, Palpatine disbanded the Imperial Senate and introduced the planet-destroying Death Star. However, the Rebel Alliance launched an attack that was able to destroy the battle station, officially beginning the Galactic Civil War. Despite an ensuing four years of setbacks, the Rebel Alliance launched the decisive Battle of Endor against the Empire. By the battle's end, the second Death Star was destroyed. The Emperor was killed by Darth Vader, who once again became Anakin Skywalker, redeemed from the dark side of the Force by his son, Jedi Knight Luke Skywalker. Retreating to the Annaj system, the Empire had suffered a crippling defeat.
A new government
- "This is Leia Organa, last princess of Alderaan, former member of the Galactic Senate, and a leader in the Alliance to Restore the Republic. I have a message for the galaxy. Emperor Palpatine—the greatest tyrant civilization has ever known, responsible for death and suffering beyond measure—is dead. He and a second Death Star battle station were destroyed by Alliance forces earlier today. This does not mark the end of the Empire. The fight will continue. But you must take this opportunity. Join us in the foundation of a new Republic to be shaped by the will of the governed. Claim your freedom and your future. Help is on the way."
- ―Leia Organa, in a holographic transmission sent to the Anoat sector in the wake of the Battle of Endor
Owing to their success in the Battle of Endor, the Rebel Alliance would reorganize into a fledgling new government known as the New Republic. The Republic pressed its advantage against the Empire by pursuing shattered Imperial forces throughout the galaxy, hoping to prevent them from regrouping into a larger foe once more. With many celebrating the defeat of the Old Empire's dictatorial ruler, including a riot in Monument Plaza, the Empire would still maintain the military superiority over the fledgling Rebellion. Seeking to prevent the disheartened Imperial forces from reorganizing, the Alliance embarked on campaigns such as the Beltire Liberation and Battle of Cawa City, with both operations seeing New Republic victories and Imperial blunders. Twenty days after the Battle of Endor, Princess Leia Organa of Alderaan, who had been sent by Mon Mothma, Chancellor of the Alliance, visited the then-Queen of Naboo, Sosha Soruna. In the royal palace's throne room, Organa asked for Naboo's support in the establishment of a New Republic and the restoration of a senate. The queen accepted Organa's offer, claiming that the Naboo felt great shame over Palpatine's actions. Although the Empire attempted to destroy Naboo and a variety of other worlds such as Burnin Konn, Candovant, Abednedo, and Commenor using climate disruption arrays during Palpatine' posthumous contingency plan Operation: Cinder, the plan was ultimately foiled by Alliance forces. During the subsequent Naboo Sieges, with Imperials who sought to claim Naboo as a rallying point around their defeated leader's former homeworld, the New Republic would continue to successfully defend the planet, its efforts there led by Thane Kyrell and Corona Squadron, along with several Imperial deserters who informed the Republic of Imperial strategy.
As chaos and hope slowly gripped the galaxy, Imperial propaganda soon began touting several contradictory messages, with some claiming that the Emperor lived on, or that the so-called New Republic slowly plundered innocent star systems for its terrorist organization, while others feared legitimizing it by referring to it as anything other than a criminal organization. Governor Adelhard locked down all communication and travel from the Anoat sector, hunting down any that spoke word of the Emperor's death with his Purge Troopers. Nonetheless, New Republic forces quickly began to swell as propaganda broadcasts featuring the destruction of the second Death Star rallied thousands of individuals to take up arms against the Empire. Chandrila was soon chosen to be the capital of the fledgling government, while the Galactic Senate was re-established and its newly seated members elected Mon Mothma as the Chancellor. Chancellor Mon Mothma, former leader of the Alliance to Restore the Republic knew that a unified, singular message would be required to win the hearts and minds of civilians across the galaxy. Making clear that her new position was merely provisional, Republic communications bureaus worked around the chrono, crafting inspiration messages of hope, rebirth, empowerment and self-determination. The Empire soon installed an actor to play the role of Palpatine, however some were able to see through the facsimile. Inevitably, the truth of the Emperor's demise became known to general citizenry, while ambitious men announced their ascension to the Imperial throne almost everyday. In reality, Grand Vizier Mas Amedda, former aide to the Emperor since the Clone Wars would hold all the real power, and embark on the impossible task of maintaining the administrative and military matters of the Empire.
While the New Republic appeared unstoppable following the destruction of the Death Star II, several Alliance leaders such as recently promoted Fleet Admiral Gial Ackbar knew that the Alliance's victory at Endor was nothing more than pure luck. Despite major victories on Sevarcos and Malastare, along with foiling an attempt to restart the droid foundries on Geonosis by SpecForces, the Republic still feared what a unified, singular thrust against populated New Republic systems could spell for the movement. Luckily for the Republic, the Imperial leadership could barely contend with themselves let alone an external threat. Ambitious members of the Imperial Council soon began carving up pieces of the Emperor's territories for themselves, while ambitious Moffs such as Valco Pandion and Randd began a rapid process of self-promotion and aggrandisement. While the Imperial Military maintained a semblance of unity owing to old loyalists and a common fear of the Rebellion, a few senior Imperials counted the days until someone of prominence broke away from the fold, ushering in the true collapse of the Empire.
With numerous splinter fleets and factions of the Empire rising up, several of them retreated to worlds in the Outer Rim to escape the attention of the New Republic, while strategically unimportant worlds such as Naalol would see heavy fighting in the months following the Emperor's death, with the Imperials using them as fallback positions as other worlds slowly eluded its grasp. To several Alliance leaders, the shift of the Empire to worlds in the Outer Systems only made sense with the foreknowledge that many of the original seeds of the Empire originated there. Wedge Antilles, a New Republic starfighter pilot, eventually tracked a gathering of Imperial forces on the Outer Rim world of Akiva, but was captured by the Star Destroyer Vigilance before he could report to the New Republic, necessitating a mission to rescue him. In reality, the military build-up would be the result of Admiral Rae Sloane, who attempted to bring some of the last leaders of the Empire together in the Imperial Future Council, where they would discuss the Empire's long-term strategy and appoint a new Emperor. Before any progress could be made, the resulting Rebellion on Akiva saw several key Imperial figures killed or captured, with the New Republic Starfleet interrupting the gathering owing to Imperial admiral Gallius Rax, who had been feeding the Republic information under the codename the "Operator." The Operator had in fact been providing the New Republic with sensitive Imperial information for months following Endor, with the intentions of removing those he saw as weak from leadership positions to 'cleanse' the Order from the inside out.
A year and four days after the Battle of Endor, the New Republic fought Imperial forces during the climactic Battle of Jakku. Hoping to capture a critical sector in the galactic war as well as the Imperial Star Destroyer, Inflictor. While initially in the Empire's favor, the battle swiftly turned into a rout as dispersed Republic forces ambushed the Imperials on both the ground and in space. Utilizing their tractor beams to drag New Republic vessels into the ground, the landscape of the desert world of Jakku would become littered with starship remains for decades to come, including those of the Inflictor itself. The battle ended when world of a far off peace treaty, the Galactic Concordance, was signed between the Empire and Republic on Coruscant. As a result, some Imperial warships began immediately jumping off into the Unknown Regions. Stipulating the surrender of the Galactic Empire, the treaty imposed strict rules on the remaining Imperial-held territories, disarming them and imposing harsh reparations. The Old Empire dissolved almost completely, becoming a mere rump state. As time went on, former Imperial officers and nobles began rebuilding the government into a faction that would come to be known as the First Order.
A new peace
The Galactic Concordance
As one its first acts following the signing of the Galactic Concordance, the Senate passed the Military Disarmament Act which drastically cut the New Republic's military to a large but operationally-limited peacekeeping force, an early goal of Mon Mothma's. The move was lauded by most who believed that the remaining Imperial hardliners posed no threat. Leia Organa disagreed and was sidelined from the New Republic's political process. While the First Order briefly existed as part of the Republic political process, the Order would inevitably secede from the body politic once tensions flared. While many applauded the notion, others realized that without Republic oversight into First Order activities, a new and even greater threat could once more return to the galactic stage.
The New Republic remained the dominant galactic government for three decades after the Battle of Endor. During that period, an entire generation grew up knowing only peace with little comprehension of the Old Empire and the Galactic Civil War. At some unknown point, Mon Mothma resigned as Chancellor with her successors failing to command the same level of charisma and consensus that the elder stateswoman held among the Senate. About six years prior to the destruction of the Hosnian system, the Core World of Hosnian Prime served as the capital of the Republic and housed the Galactic Senate. By that time, the Senate had degenerated into political gridlock and infighting.
Two unofficial but powerful factions known as the Centrists, who advocated a stronger galactic government and military, and the Populists, who believed that individual worlds should retain most authority, squabbled for control of the Senate and the New Republic. Due to the constant bickering, the New Republic was unable to enforce financial regulations and to undertake regular patrols of the galaxy's shipping lanes. This indecisiveness facilitated the resurgence of several criminal cartels including the Nikto crime lord Rinnrivin Di's cartel, which preyed on shipping in the Gaulus sector that housed the planet Ryloth. Rinnrivin's criminal activities led Ryloth's Emissary Yendor to petition the Senate for assistance.
While several senators considered Rinnrivin's activities as an "intrasystem matter", the Populist Senator Leia Organa and her Centrist colleague Ransolm Casterfo volunteered to investigate the Nikto criminal cartel. The two senators traveled to the Outer Rim planet of Bastatha, where Rinnrivin's cartel was known to operate. There, Senator Organa was kidnapped by Rinnrivin, who attempted to bribe the Senator into easing Republic restrictions on the spice trade. However, Organa was rescued by Casterfo and Rinnrivin was forced to flee his hideout. Analysis of the data from Rinnrivin's headquarters indicated that Bastatha's gambling revenue was being channeled into a network of shadowy corporations based in the Outer Rim.
Following the Mission to Bastatha, the Centrist Senator Lady Carise Sindian introduced a motion calling on the Galactic Senate to abolish the Chancellorship and to create a new, more powerful post called First Senator, that would wield considerable power over the military and the economy. Senator Casterfo managed to sway the neutralist senators into voting in favor of the resolution. As a result, the Senate carried the motion and the Populists were forced to change tactic by endorsing one of their own for the position. Due to her clout as the late Bail Organa's daughter and Rebel Alliance leader, Senator Organa decided to stand as the Populist candidate for First Senator.
Later, Organa's starfighter pilots Greer Sonnel and Joph Seastriker discovered that Rinnrivin was hiring members of the Amaxine warriors as pilots for his smuggling and raiding operations. Over the course of their investigation, Leia and her team discovered circumstantial evidence that several Centrist senators were colluding with Rinnrivin's cartel and the Amaxine warriors. In an attempt to sow chaos, Arliz Hadrassian, a former TIE fighter pilot and the fanatical leader of the Amaxine warriors, bombed the Senate's conference hall. While no senators were killed due to the timely actions of Leia, the so-called "Napkin Bombing" was reported in the media as the most serious security incident since the end of the Civil War. Centrists and Populists soon began accusing each other of staging the bombing for political gain.
An insidious threat
Ignoring the political gridlock, Organa and Casterfo continue their investigations into Rinnrivin's syndicate. On Leia's behalf, Ransolm traveled to Daxam IV to investigate the Amaxine warriors. While posing as an Imperial sympathizer and collector of rare Imperial artifacts, Casterfo met Hadrassian and learned that the Amaxine warriors were a large, well-armed militia group that admired the "Old Empire." Meanwhile, Leia and the rest of her team including C-3PO and Korr Sella visited the Ryloth archives and discovered evidence about Rinnrivin's "sudden" rise to power as a major crime figure. Leia's team also discovered that Rinnrivin maintained spy satellites that were linked to the Expansion Region world of Sibensko. After a secret meeting with Rinnrivin on Harloff Minor, Leia learned that Rinnrivin disagreed with the Amaxines' actions during the Napkin Bombing.
After returning to Hosnian Prime, Leia and Ransolm exchanged notes and made preparations to travel to Sibensko. Before they could travel there, Leia formally made preparations to announce her candidacy for First Senator at the Galactic Senate. However, Lady Carise, who had become the Supreme Governor of Birren with the help of Leia, discovered sensitive information about Leia's true parentage as the daughter of the universally reviled Darth Vader. In secret, Lady Carise was a clandestine agent of the First Order who was working to destabilize the Republic. Unhappy that her Centrist colleague Casterfo was friendly with Leia, Carise told him about Leia's secret. Feeling betrayed by his friend, Casterfo informed the Senate about Leia's true parentage. Due to the ensuing political fallout from the revelation, Leia's reputation was destroyed overnight and she was forced to withdraw her nomination for First Senator.
Despite this major setback, Leia still resolved to continue her investigation into Rinnrivin's cartel and the Amaxine warriors. With the help of Joph and Greer, Leia and C-3PO managed to infiltrate Sibensko. There, C-3PO discovered banking records which proved that the Amaxines and another "mysterious entity" were channeling funds into the Rinnrivin's cartel, which was then channeling the money into Centrist worlds. Leia and her team were pursued by Rinnrivin and the Amaxine warriors, who maintained a large base on Sibensko that included several starfighter. However, they managed to escape with the help of Han Solo shortly before a downed Amaxine B-wing starfighter collided with the Amaxines' ammunition depot; triggering an explosion that destroyed the underwater city. This crippled the Amaxines but destroyed much of the evidence linking the militia and Rinnrivin to the First Order and Lady Carise.
Following the events on Sibensko, Leia addressed the Galactic Senate about her investigation into Rinnrivin's cartel and the Amaxines. She ended her speech calling on the Galactic Senate to put aside their differences and to be on guard for any future threats to the New Republic. While many distrusted her due to her parentage as Vader's daughter, Senator Casterfo, who was guilt-stricken by his role in Leia's political downfall, spoke in her defense. He presented evidence about the Amaxines' arms-buildup and their admiration for the "Old Empire." Casterfo's actions earned the ire of Lady Carise, who wanted to use the Centrists to undermine the New Republic.
Lady Carise hired Arliz Hadrassian to the Populist Senator Tai-Lin Garr, Leia's friend and the new Populist candidate for First Senator. Hadrassian then killed herself before she could be taken into custody. The New Republic media and public believed that Hadrassian was the sole mastermind behind the Amaxine warriors, the Napkin bombing, and Rinnrivin's syndicate. Lady Carise then fabricated evidence linking Casterfo to Hadrassian. Accused of sponsoring and financing Hadrassian, Casterfo was deported to his homeworld of Riosa to face imprisonment, trial, and sentencing. Realizing that Lady Carise was responsible for leaking information about her parentage and framing Casterfo, Leia convinced the Elder Houses to strip Carise of all her titles and powers. Disillusioned with the infighting in the Senate, Leia resigned as Senator and founded the Resistance to safeguard the Republic from all threats.
Under Leia's leadership, the Resistance became a private military force that kept watch over the First Order's movements. Although she petitioned for assistance from the New Republic, the Senate was too self-absorbed to take much notice and its slow political process frustrated the former princess.
A shattered peace
- "Today is the end of the Republic. The end of a regime that acquiesces to disorder. At this very moment in a system far from here, the New Republic lies to the galaxy while secretly supporting the treachery of the loathsome Resistance. This fierce machine which you have built, upon which we stand, will bring an end to the Senate, to their cherished fleet. All remaining systems will bow to the First Order and will remember this as the last day of the Republic!"
- ―General Armitage Hux to the members of Starkiller Base before the destruction of the Hosnian system
Some thirty years after the Emperor's defeat at Endor, a cold war developed between the growing First Order and the New Republic. Despite warnings from General Organa about the dangers of the First Order, the Senate, led by Chancellor Lanever Villecham focused more on improving trade relationships with the neutral Trans-Hydian Borderlands systems. Believing that the First Order was remaining within their assigned borders and following the tenants of the Galactic Concordance, the Senate and Chancellor Villecham saw little cause for alarm. New Republic military officers like Major Lonno Deso generally regarded the First Order as an ill-equipped, ill-funded terrorist group that simply had a good propaganda arm, and even considered Organa and her allies scaremongering troublemakers trying to relive their glory days.
In the hopes of convincing the Senate to her point of view, Organa sent Resistance Commander Korr Sella to as an envoy to make a case for action by the New Republic. Determined to reveal its true power, the First Order, led by Supreme Leader Snoke, attacked the New Republic using its superweapon, the Starkiller Base, commanded by General Armitage Hux. It harnessed the sun's power and then destroyed the planets of the Hosnian system, including Hosnian Prime which at that time was serving as the Republic capital and hosting the Senate and one New Republic fleet. The Resistance in turn attacked Starkiller Base and was able to destroy it.
- "This is democracy. […] We will not always get it right. We will never have it perfect. But we will listen. To the countless voices crying out across the galaxy, we have opened our ears, and we will always listen. That is how democracy survives. That is how it thrives. […] That is democracy. That is the New Republic. And if you'll excuse me, we have a great deal of work to do."
- ―Olia Choko
With the signing of the Galactic Concordance on Coruscant, the New Republic secured both victory and peace. Several changes were made to the political process to ensure mistakes of the Old Republic were not repeated. Despite dropping the "supreme" from the title, the post of Chancellor still held the emergency powers granted to Palpatine during the Old Republic's last years. To prevent further abuses of the office, Mon Mothma gave up these emergency powers and set forth a plan to give aid to war-torn worlds and bolster the training of their planetary defense forces so that they could defend themselves. Additionally, the Senate passed the Military Disarmament Act which, while maintaining the New Republic Starfleet, greatly reduced its size and capabilities.
The New Republic, in accordance with its humanitarian values prohibited torture as part of the Galactic Concordance, however the divisive topic on the treatment of former Imperials would occupy much heated debate. Some wished to execute and punish those responsible for war crimes, while others were dismayed at the thought of succumbing to the barbarities of the former regime, and emulating what they had fought so hard against. Ultimately, the fact that billions of individuals had participated in the Empire—many of them against their wishes—cooler heads prevailed, allowing for leniency in sentences and the invitation of former Imperial governors to the New Republic. Likewise, civilian and military personnel were offered a new life within the annals of the nascent Republic.
In order to gain the support of disaffected worlds and prevent friction that had occurred during the Old Republic and later the Empire, the New Republic government chose to not settle down on Coruscant. Instead, member worlds would host the capital on a rotating basis with elections deciding where to seat the Senate. Despite its outward appearance of unity, the Senate was divided into two feuding faction: the Populists, which believed that almost all authority should reside in individual member worlds, and the Centrists, who supported a stronger central government. The two factions frequently squabbled over policies and government spending, creating an atmosphere of political deadlock and distrust in the Senate. As a result, the Republic was unable to carry out several of its functions including preventing the resurgence of organized crime, enforcing financial regulations, and patrolling the shipping lanes.
In response to the political gridlock, the Centrists Lady Carise and Ransolm Casterfo proposed the creation of the office of First Senator, that would wield considerable power over the galactic economy and military. The Populist Senators Leia Organa and Tai-Lin Garr were considered as viable candidates for that office until revelations into the former's parentage and the latter's assassination. In response to the political unrest resonating from Garr's death and Casterfo's arrest, the Senate passed a motion delaying elections for the near future. This was supported by Lady Carise and her Centrist allies, who planned to secede from the New Republic and join the First Order.
Prior to Poe Dameron's search for Lor San Tekka, several members of the Galactic Senate including the Centrist Erudo Ro-Kiintor, were colluding with the First Order, which had seceded from Republic politics some time past. In return for receiving large sums of credits transferred through the Corporate Sector Authority and third-party corporations, Ro-Kiintor and other like-minded senators frequently delayed, derailed and dismissed motions regarding sanctions against the First Order and increased support for the Republic Navy.
The New Republic evolved from the Alliance to Restore the Republic to become the new galactic government. Following the Battle of Jakku, the Republic signed the Galactic Concordance with the Galactic Empire, which imposed strict disarmament treaties and punishing reparations that limited the Empire's ability to wage war. About thirty years after the Battle of Endor, the New Republic believed that the remnants of the "Old Empire" no longer posed a threat and thus turned its attention to reshaping galactic politics. About thirty years after the Battle of Endor, Chancellor Lanever Villecham favored developing closer trade relations with the Trans-Hydian Borderlands as opposed to taking military action against the First Order, a remnant of the "Old Empire." Despite intelligence reports to the contrary, both the Republic's Senate Intelligence Committee and several Republic military commanders like Major Lonno Deso viewed the First Order as an ill-organized, poorly equipped, and badly-funded group of Imperial loyalists who used propaganda and fear to exaggerate their strength and importance. Republic Command also did not believe that the First Order posed a serious threat and limited military units like Rapier Squadron to sector patrol in order to avoid provoking the First Order.
The New Republic tolerated the Resistance, a private military force created by General Leia Organa to monitor the movements of the First Order. While the New Republic officially tolerated the Resistance, it was reluctant to help the Resistance since it was wary of risking war with the First Order. Conversely, the Resistance's leadership found the Galactic Senate too slow and too preoccupied with self-interest to be of any help.  Some military commanders like Major Deso believed that the Resistance was inflating its own activities and exaggerating the threat posed by the First Order. The First Order on the other hand despised the New Republic as an illegitimate regime that tolerated disorder and supported the Resistance. In an effort to destroy the Republic, the First Order launched a preemptive attack on the Hosnian system, which at that time hosted the Senate and the New Republic Starfleet.
Besides the Resistance and the First Order, the New Republic had to contend with other entities including the Guavian Death Gang, the Hutts, and the Corporate Sector Authority. In addition, the New Republic also had political and trade relations with independent, non-member worlds like Ryloth. Some of the most important functions of the New Republic government included enforcing financial regulations and conducting comprehensive patrols of shipping lanes in order to protect the galaxy from large-scale organized crime syndicates like the Hutts and Rinnrivin Di's cartel. Prior to the Napkin Bombing, the New Republic was unable to carry out these functions due to endless gridlock in the Senate.
The New Republic military traced its roots from the military formations of the Rebel Alliance. The New Republic military was known to have three branches: the New Republic Starfleet, the ground-based New Republic army, and the New Republic Special Forces. The Republic's military saw extensive action against the remnants of the Galactic Empire during the last stages of the Galactic Civil War. Following the Galactic Concordance, the Galactic Senate enacted the Military Disarmament Act that drastically reduced the New Republic military to a smaller peacetime force. The Military Disarmament Act had originated as an initiative of Chancellor Mon Mothma, who believed that a demilitarized galaxy was conducive to lasting peace.
Some of the peacetime functions of the New Republic Starfleet including patrolling galactic shipping lanes and escorting Senators on government business. While the Republic Starfleet had enough resources to defend the entire galaxy in peacetime, several Centrist senators like Erudo Ro-Kiintor frequently lobbied for more government funding to be diverted for planetary defenses; a pretext for earmarking funding to Centrist worlds. The New Republic military was also led by a Fleet Admiral and Republic Command. Prior to the destruction of the Hosnian system, Republic Command ordered its military personnel and units not to engage in hostilities with the First Order due to the Galactic Senate's desire to avoid another war.
Society and culture
As the successor to the Alliance to Restore the Republic, the New Republic saw itself as a democracy where free exchange of ideas and opinions were actively encouraged and protected. Government debates on proposals and policies were broadcast on HoloNet to promote transparency and accountability. In the aftermath of the Battle of Endor, the New Republic passed legislation which direct some government expenditure for non-military usage, cleaned up polluted worlds, and compensated alien species that had been enslaved by the Empire.
Rejecting the totalitarianism and censorship of the Galactic Empire, the New Republic eased restrictions on the media. Following the liberation of Akiva, the newly unfettered HoloNet reported on Imperial atrocities such as the wholesale massacres of native populations carried out by Imperial commanders and Imperial suicide attacks on entrenched New Republic positions. Media were allowed to debate current affairs events like the aftermath of Battle of Jakku.
In contrast to the xenophobia of the Empire, humans and aliens were equally represented in New Republic government institutions like the Galactic Senate. About six years before the destruction of the Hosnian system, there was a divide between Populist and Centrist worlds, which reflected the two main political factions in the Senate. Populist worlds supported greater planetary autonomy, with some Populist senators advocating that citizens vote on Senate legislation and others urging the abolition of the Senate. Meanwhile, Centrist worlds advocated a stronger central government and military and took a tough stance on law and order. Some Centrists like Lady Carise Sindian were nostalgic towards the Old Empire and supported the idea of the Centrist worlds seceding from the New Republic to join the First Order.
In terms of sports, one popular piloting championship was the the Five Sabers, a five-stage race that was held on the planet Theron. The Rebel Alliance veteran and former smuggler Han Solo helped to manage the championship. A junior version called the Junior Sabers was also held for younger pilots like Greer Sonnel. Ubardian oil wrestling was also popular entertainment on some seedy worlds like Sibensko.
The New Republic had a galactic-wide economy based on galactic shipping lanes. While the its economy was based on free trade and promoting prosperity, the New Republic did not allow the free trade of most forms of spice. However, it allowed the sale and trade of weak forms of spice that could be mined and grown on numerous worlds. The Republic's prohibition on illegal and dangerous forms of spice annoyed crime lords like Rinnrivin Di, who made a living out of trafficking illicit spice.
The New Republic also had a policy of not allowed organized crime syndicates to dominate the galaxy like they once did during the Age of the Empire. However, deadlock in the Galactic Senate prevented the Republic from fulfilling this promise. By the time of the Napkin Bombing, some locations like the space station Chrome Citadel and the Expansion Region planet of Sibensko were regarded as crime havens where various illegal activities including slavery and the trafficking of Glitterstim and weapons took place. While the Republic also had financial regulations aimed at tackling organized crime, these were sporadically enforced by the time of the Napkin Bombing.
Thirty years after the Battle of Endor, the New Republic occupied vast swaths of space stretching from the Inner Core to the Outer Rim Territories, and at that time had its rotating capital on the Core World of Hosnian Prime. While a fraction the size of both the Galactic Republic and Empire, its egalitarian practices left many neighboring star systems on friendly terms with the new government. Some known Republic worlds included Chandrila, Akiva, Coruscant,Taris, Naboo, Hevurion, Mirrin Prime, Arkanis, Kuat, and Daxam IV. After the First Order's secession from the Republic, a narrow region of space existed a neutral region of systems known as the Trans-Hydian Borderlands, in which an act of aggression within would be viewed as an overt act of war. Despite this, the First Order Navy frequently crossed the Borderlands and penetrated New Republic space, which led to incidents like the Suraz engagement. In spite of these violations of the Galactic Concordance, the New Republic refused to take action against the First Order beyond issuing formal diplomatic protests.
Behind the scenes
The New Republic first appeared in the 1991 Star Wars Legends novel Heir to the Empire by Timothy Zahn. The government appeared in the next two chapters of Zahn's Thrawn Trilogy and went on to appear in a number of Legends stories until it was reorganized into the Galactic Federation of Free Alliances in The New Jedi Order series novel Force Heretic I: Remnant.
In the 2014 canon mobile game Star Wars: Galactic Defense, Tarfful can be seen yelling "hnn-rowr yrroonn nng rarr"—text that first appeared in the Legends comic Empire's End and meant "long live the New Republic," when translated from Shyriiwook.
In 2015, it was revealed that the New Republic would be part of the official Star Wars canon when it was referenced in a press release for the Star Wars Battlefront Battle of Jakku DLC. Prior to the release of Battlefront, the New Republic appears in the novels Aftermath and Lost Stars by Chuck Wendig and Claudia Gray respectively.
- Star Wars: Shattered Empire, Part II (Mentioned only)
- Star Wars: Shattered Empire, Part III (Mentioned only in opening crawl)
- Aftermath (First appearance, simultaneous with Lost Stars)
- Lost Stars (First appearance, simultaneous with Aftermath)
- Aftermath: Life Debt
- "Blade Squadron: Kuat"—Star Wars Insider 168
- Blade Squadron: Jakku
- Star Wars Battlefront
- "The Perfect Weapon" (Mentioned only)
- "Bait"—Star Wars Insider 162 (Mentioned only)
- Before the Awakening
- Star Wars: Poe Dameron 1: Black Squadron, Part I (Mentioned only in opening crawl)
- Star Wars: Poe Dameron 2: Black Squadron, Part II (Mentioned only)
- Star Wars: Poe Dameron 3: Black Squadron, Part III (Mentioned only)
- Star Wars: Poe Dameron 4: Lockdown, Part I (Mentioned only)
- Star Wars: Episode VII The Force Awakens
- Star Wars: The Force Awakens novel
- Star Wars: The Force Awakens: A Junior Novel
- Star Wars: The Force Awakens, Part II (Mentioned only)