- "The Republic cannot be fixed, m'lady. It is time to start over."
- ―Count Dooku, to Padmé Amidala
The Confederacy of Independent Systems, also known as the Confederacy, the Separatist Confederacy, the New Order, the pro-secessionists, colloquially as Separatists, Seps, Sepies, and the Separatist Alliance, was the government and separatist movement publicly led by Count Dooku, a.k.a. Darth Tyranus, (and secretly led by Darth Sidious) formed by various planetary and sectorial governments, as well as some mega-corporations, that declared intentions to leave the Galactic Republic, refusing to comply with its excessive taxation and corruption in the Senate during the Separatist Crisis.
Eventually, tensions between it and the Republic developed into war after Anakin Skywalker, Obi-Wan Kenobi, and Padmé Amidala were sentenced to execution on Geonosis and a group of Jedi led by Mace Windu attempted to rescue them. After the Republic revealed its clone army on Geonosis, the Separatists were forced to retreat, beginning a great war that would last for three years and tear the galaxy apart.
The CIS put fear in the hearts of countless citizens of the Republic, largely due to General Grievous, Supreme Commander of the Droid Armies. The Confederacy won many battles in the ensuing war but was dissolved when the Separatist Council leaders were killed on Mustafar, allowing Palpatine to reform the Republic into the Galactic Empire.
The rise of the Separatist movement
- "As I explained to you earlier, I am quite convinced that ten thousand more systems will rally to our cause with your support, gentlemen."
- ―Count Dooku, to the Separatist Council
In the decades prior to the Clone Wars, the Republic was seen by many as a failing government, plagued by corruption and mindless bureaucracy that stifled the voices of many constituents represented in the Galactic Senate. Secession grew during the period following the Invasion of Naboo, and the commerce guilds and trading corporations became disillusioned with the Republic after the law was passed to place taxation on all trade routes to outlying star systems.
Into this critical situation stepped Count Dooku, a former Jedi Master who had become disillusioned with the Republic and the Jedi Order that served it. This charismatic figure stirred up anti-Republic sentiments on many worlds, paving the way for a rebellion against the government. A loose affiliation of separatists was formed, with Dooku at their head, pushing for a new government to take the place of the stagnant Republic. Eventually, this Separatist movement established itself as the Confederacy of Independent Systems, a body formally opposed to the Galactic Republic. The members of the CIS included the Corporate Alliance, Trade Federation, Commerce Guild, InterGalactic Banking Clan and the Techno Union. Although the Republic recognized that many of its member worlds were in rebellion, it refused to formally acknowledge the existence of the CIS as their common government, deeming that doing so would legitimize it.
Unknown to the Republic, Dooku was also Darth Tyranus, Sith apprentice to Darth Sidious, who had previous ties with the Trade Federation ordered the Invasion of Naboo. Under the guise of Supreme Chancellor Palpatine of the Republic, Sidious had used Tyranus as the public leader for the CIS in the Sith's plot to destroy the Jedi Order and transform the galaxy.
- "Our friends from the Trade Federation have pledged their support. And when their battle droids are combined with yours, we shall have an army greater than any in the galaxy. The Jedi will be overwhelmed. The Republic will agree to any demands we make."
- ―Count Dooku
The Confederacy marshaled armed forces to its cause, to be eventually used to topple the Republic and take the capital planet of Coruscant. The Trade Federation, commanded by the Republic to downsize its Droid Army after the Naboo incident, instead expanded its forces in secret, adding its battle droids to the Separatist arsenal steadily growing with input from other factions, such as the Techno Union. Foundries on Geonosis, Hypori, and elsewhere created countless billions of battle droids ready to fight for the Separatist cause, all while Dooku continued to recruit more star systems to his cause.
However, the CIS would soon lose the advantage of surprise when Obi-Wan Kenobi, having tracked the bounty hunter Jango Fett from Kamino to Geonosis, managed to send a message to Anakin Skywalker and Supreme Chancellor Palpatine, betraying the Confederate presence on Geonosis. In the middle of sending the message, he was attacked by a droideka, prompting Anakin and Padmé Amidala to go and rescue him. Arriving on Geonosis, both of them ended up getting captured in one of the massive Geonosis droid foundries, and were sentenced to death in an arena.
However, in the middle of the executions, Mace Windu and an army of Jedi turned up, and engaged in the Battle of Geonosis against the natives and their battle droids. Unfortunately, the sheer number of droids proved overwhelming, and soon only about a dozen Jedi remained.
Fortunately for the Jedi, Master Yoda soon arrived with a cavalry of LAAT/i gunships, rescuing the Jedi. Republic forces struck all over Geonosis, and the Clone Wars began. The CIS was pushed off Geonosis, but it was ultimately inconsequential.
For the next three years, the Republic and CIS would be engaged in a brutal war, with many dying on both sides. Unbeknownst to all, the war was merely all part of a plan by Darth Sidious to bring about his ultimate goal: domination of the galaxy by the Sith.
For the first half of the war, the Confederacy was doing well, capturing many planets, despite losses on Muunilinst and Dac. However, the tables turned and it began to suffer a series of defeats, which led to the Outer Rim Sieges. The Confederacy was responsible for some atrocities during the war, particularly by General Grievous. Throughout the war, the Confederacy attempted to gain the advantage using superweapons, such as the Dark Reaper and the Malevolence ion pulse cannons.
During the war, there were many heroes on the side of the Confederacy, including Sev'rance Tann, Durge, and Asajj Ventress, and General Grievous, many of whom were driven by hatred of the Republic or the Jedi. At around the midpoint of the war, Grievous initiated Operation Durge's Lance, a campaign which spearhead into the Inner Rim, leading to a string of Confederate victories, including the conquest of Duro. At this point, many were certain that CIS victory was inevitable.
However, soon the Republic began going on the offensive, winning battles at Bomis Koori IV, Boz Pity, and others. With the death and loss of Confederate heroes Durge and Asajj Ventress, the Confederacy began to lose the advantage. The Republic began laying siege to what Palpatine called a Triad of Evil: Felucia, Mygeeto, and Saleucami, and the Separatist council was forced to keep on the move. However, the Confederacy still had plenty of fight left, as it began launching assaults on Kashyyyk and other worlds. This culminated when Grievous led a massive assault on Coruscant to "capture" the Supreme Chancellor. However, Palpatine was rescued and despite many losses, the Republic did inflict more damage on the Separatists, making the assault useless.
The fall of the Confederacy
The Confederacy of Independent Systems was eventually defeated, though this was not its own fault. Suffering losses—and victories, for that matter—right from the beginning of the war, and despite the might of General Grievous and its vastly superior numbers, the droid forces were often defeated by the Republic. However, as Darth Sidious manipulated the war, influencing some of the defeats of the CIS as well as some of its victories, the Separatists had lost before they had even started fighting—Sidious wanted the Republic to win. At the end of the war, Count Dooku was struck down by Anakin Skywalker on board the Invisible Hand, General Grievous was killed on Utapau by Obi-Wan Kenobi, the CIS leadership was murdered by Darth Vader, Sidious' new apprentice, on Mustafar, and the commerce guilds faded quietly into oblivion.
The corporations that made up the Confederacy were Imperialized and assimilated into the Imperial war machine, and most of the Separatist worlds were absorbed into the Empire, with many prominent races of the Confederacy enslaved, while others, such as the Trandoshans, allied themselves with the Empire. The majority of the droid armies were shut down, providing no opposition to the Imperial stormtroopers. The Death Star project, originally the CIS's, was absorbed by the Galactic Empire.
However, reminders and relics of the Confederacy continued to survive the ages. On Jaguada's moon, a small army of droids was accidentally reactivated by some fugitive Jedi. Old droid parts were used by Wookiee forces during a battle against Imperial forces. In that same battle, an old CIS warship was used to the advantage of escaping Jedi. A contingent of B1 battle droids continued to function on Geonosis, although they were defeated by a squad of stormtroopers that crashed on the planet, as well as Wedge Antilles. The Zann Consortium used an old droid factory on Hypori to build droideka Mark IIs for its forces. Even after the decline of the Empire, regular droidekas were used by some smugglers, as well as races like the Vagaari.
After the deaths of the members of the Separatist Council, some Separatist-loyal worlds still refused to be absorbed into the new Galactic Empire. These remnants, some organized and unorganized, would continue to fight throughout the Imperial era. The Empire would use these holdouts as justification for expansion of the Imperial Navy. Many of them ended up joining the Rebel Alliance at its formation.
Gizor Dellso's rebellion
At some point after the war, Gizor Dellso, a Geonosian droid manufacturer who managed to survive the demise of the Confederacy leaders at the end of the Clone Wars, initiated a plan to revive the Confederacy. He reactivated a droid factory on Mustafar and built a small army. He was preparing to start another war, in an effort to take advantage of the reorganization of the newly christened Galactic Empire.
He started by activating a droid fleet around Mustafar's orbit to defend his factory. He drew up prototype plans for a new battle droid, similar to the B2 super battle droid, that had layers of armor.
As his soldiers were guarding the factory, an Imperial fleet bearing the 501st Legion arrived at Mustafar. A Heavy Missile Platform landed in the hangar of the Imperial-class Star Destroyer, and several battle droids emerged and attacked the stormtroopers inside. However, with the use of thermal detonators, rocket launchers, and time bombs, the troops destroyed the droid gunship. The Empire then engaged and destroyed the still weak Separatist fleet and proceeded to the planet's surface. The Battle of Mustafar erupted, but due to the insufficient time for Gizor Dellso to unleash his new droid army, his obsolete droids fought a losing battle. Dellso and his Geonosian retinue died along with their hopes for a new war. The factory was subsequently destroyed by heavy orbital bombardment and the Separatist holdouts began to decline rapidly.
By 2 BBY, the remaining holdouts joined the Rebel Alliance and supplied the Alliance Fleet with many remaining separatist vessels including a Providence-class carrier/destroyer called Rebel One.
Government and politics
- "I know of your treaties with the Trade Federation, the Commerce Guilds, and the others, Count. What is happening here is not government that has been bought out by business, it's business becoming government!"
- ―Padmé Amidala, to Dooku
The Confederacy had a single Head of State, and beneath him was the Separatist Council. The official leader of the Confederacy was a former Jedi Master named Count Dooku, who was also Darth Tyranus, Darth Sidious's second known apprentice. Operating between the Head of State and the Separatist Council was the Supreme Commander of the Droid Armies, General Grievous who had no direct power over government but assumed command should the Head of State be incapacitated. If both Dooku and Grievous are incapacitated then Nute Gunray would take over as Head of State, being the head of Council (leading member to finance the war). Operating alongside the council was the Separatist Parliament who dealt with diplomatic and civilian issues. However, the real power behind the Confederacy was the Sith Lord Sidious, though few knew, such as Tyranus, that he had control.
The Separatist Council consisted of ten leaders. Each leader had his or her own people who followed his/her decisions. The Separatist Council consisted of :
- Nute Gunray—Viceroy of the Trade Federation
- Poggle the Lesser—Archduke of Geonosis
- Wat Tambor—Foreman of the Techno Union, Executive of Baktoid Armor Workshop, and Senator of Skako
- San Hill—Chairman of the InterGalactic Banking Clan
- Shu Mai—Presidente of the Commerce Guild
- Cat Miin—Aide of Shu Mai
- Passel Argente—Senator of Kooriva and Magistrate of the Corporate Alliance
- Po Nudo—Senator of Ando and Leader of the Hyper-Communications Cartel
- Tikkes—Senator of Dac and later the Quarren Isolation League
- Rogwa Wodrata—Senator of Alliga and the Phelleem sector
- The Most High Queen of Zygerria Miraj Scintel—Queen of Zygerria[source?]
These individuals represented eight independent galactic governments, that made up the Confederacy, including the Trade Federation, Techno Union, InterGalactic Banking Clan, Geonosian Industries, Commerce Guild, Corporate Alliance, Hyper-Communications Cartel and the Quarren Isolation League. Eight worlds (all the origins of the leading species), were the capitals of the eight separatist governments, including Neimoidia, Skako, Muunilinst, Geonosis, Castell, Kooriva, Ando and Dac. Although the governments were affiliated with each other into one galactic government against the Galactic Republic, each had played their own part in the Separatist Crisis from 24 BBY–22 BBY and the Clone Wars that followed, from 22 BBY–19 BBY.
Republic Senators who joined the cause:
- Toonbuck Toora—Senator of Sy Myrth
- Sy Myrthian Aide—Associate Planetary Representative of Sy Myrth
- Baron Rush Clovis—Senator of Scipio and the InterGalactic Banking Clan
- Prince Tal Merrik—Senator of Kalevala
- Lott Dod—Senator of Neimoidia and the Trade Federation
- Beolars Bribbs—President of the Sullustan Council, CEO of SoroSuub Corporation and Senator of Sullust
- Navi—Senator of Thustra
- Moje—Associate Planetary Representative of Thustra
- Vien'sai'Malloc—Senator of Devaron Space
- Corlissi Ludar—Senator of Sluis Van and the Sluis sector
- Dodra F'ass—Senator of Clak'dor VII and the Mayagil sector
- Rodd—Senator of Fondor and the Tapani sector
- Esu Rotsino—Senator of Abrion Major and the Abrion sector
- Daggibus Scoritoles—Senator of Yag'Dhul and the Givin Domain
- Tyreca Bremack—Senator of Agamar and the Lahara sector
- Zurros—Senator of Falleen
- Wuja Wojaine—Senator of Almanian sector
- Onaconda Farr—Senator of Rodia (Briefly allied to the Confederacy)
- Lolo Purs—Aide of Farr and Associate Planetary Representative of Rodia
- Gume Saam—Senator of Tibrin (Affiliated with the Confederacy)
- Waks Trode—Associate Planetary Representative of Tibrin
- Havriso Looruya— Senator of Yir Tangee
- Silvu Donte— Senator of Riflor
- Mousul— Senator of Ansion
- Unidentified Senator
- Bezz Drexx (Received bribes from the Separatists)
- Ronet Coorr (Received bribes from the Separatists)
- The senators of the Separatist Parliament included:
Other members of power included:
- Karina the Great—Geonosian Queen of Geonosis]]
- Alaric—Sephi King of Thustra
- Ado Eemon—Ruler of Caramm V
- Candobar Inglet—Khedive of the Sluis sector and Sluis Van
- Belo Tusus—Ruler of Orto
- Pre Vizsla—Governor of Concordia, leader of the Death Watch.
- Jolluc—Maujasi Leader of the Mauja clans
- Lorca Oviedo—Director of Oviedo Engineering
- Daragi Hoba—First Minister of Ando
- Rankwin Fopow—Prime Oligarch of the Cadinth Oligarchy
- Eleven Elders of the People—Ruling Council of Emberlene
- Five Families of Cestus Cybernetics
- Hadocrassk—Speaker-Above-All of Trandosha
- The Morgukai
- Unger Gout—Warlord of Khorm
- King Kikipi—Ruler of Toong'l
- Topas dosLa—Overliege of Ukio
- Pilester Binalie—Owner of Spaarti Creations
- Alto Stratus—Leader of the Jabiimi Nationalists
- Prince Yojan—Heir of the Throne of the Simocadia royal family
- Tarin (Human)—Head of Czerka factory who was creating the FEX-M3 nerve gas grenade
- Gotal Assembly for Separation
- Independent Provisional Government of Rendili
In terms of government branches, Count Dooku served as the Executive Branch (aided by the members of the Separatist Council), with Grievous serving as his second should he fall in battle or otherwise. The Legislative branch was the Separatist Council; each member had an equal vote. The Judicial branch was in session only once: Poggle the Lesser tried Senator Amidala and Anakin Skywalker on Geonosis, eventually sentencing them to an execution. None of the court members or on-lookers were impartial, all of them wanting the pair dead.
The Confederacy's main goal was to secede from the Republic and form a new government on grounds that the Republic had become too corrupt. The members of this organization were called "Separatists". Tensions between the Republic and the Separatists eventually led to the Clone Wars.
The military forces of the Confederacy of Independent Systems—also known as the Droid Army or the Separatist Army—was a massive mix of weapons of war, battle droids, organic forces, and local warriors.
The CIS was controlled mainly by business beings like Trade Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray, InterGalactic Banking Clan Chairman San Hill, and Techno Union Foreman Wat Tambor. These individuals were not warriors or generals, but merchants, more interested in commerce than battle, and thus were ill-equipped to lead troops into battle. Of the entire political leadership, only Count Dooku, Poggle the Lesser, and Nute Gunray had any experience in warfare, although some of the Council members had skills with leading, like Wat Tambor, who was renowned as a superior strategist by many. The CIS leaders believed their superior numbers and advanced droid designs would win the Clone Wars. In some ways they were right, as droidekas were good enough to kill Jedi, and overwhelming numbers of droids won many battles for the CIS. However, the incompetence of some droids, like the B1 battle droids, lost the CIS many battles.
The Army consisted mainly of droid forces, and was often referred to as the Droid Army. The various commercial entities joined under the banner of the Confederacy pledged their forces to the Separatist Army, creating one sprawling group of droids. These ranged from the Trade Federation's battle droids to the security forces maintained by the Commerce Guild, InterGalactic Banking Clan, and Corporate Alliance.
One of the largest contributions was by the Techno Union, which donated not only its new B2 super battle droids, but numerous foundries capable of producing thousands more droids for the Confederacy. Other companies that supported the Separatists included Colla Designs, Phlac-Arphocc Automata Industries, Baktoid Industries, Haor Chall Engineering, Free Dac Volunteers Engineering Corps, Republic Sienar Systems, Retail Clan, and Feethan Ottraw Scalable Assemblies.
Other allies were quick to offer help. The Confederacy controlled countless worlds across the galaxy, and was able to recruit many of their local forces to the cause. The Jabiimi Separatist leader Alto Stratus's Nimbus commandos, the Quarren Isolation League, the Mandalorian Protectors, and many more aided the CIS and fought the Galactic Republic. Many of these forces were not droids, but sentient beings. Though largely a droid army, the Separatist Army also used a number of organic forces. From Gossam Commandos to Koorivar Fusiliers, they brought new tactics onto the field. Unlike droids, these soldiers were capable of independent thought, and many could rival even the Republic's clone troopers.
Bridging the gap between organic and automaton—literally—was one being: General Grievous, Supreme Commander of the Droid Armies. A cyborg with a brilliant tactical mind and a powerful armored body, Grievous turned the war in favor of the Confederacy. He led his troops to a number of victories across the galaxy including the conquest of Duro and the destruction of Humbarine, the attacks of strategic Loyalist worlds, and spearheaded an assault towards Coruscant itself. He also targeted the Jedi Knights—particularly problematic to the droid army—and killed many in single combat. He had ultimate power over his troops, able to command them with but a gesture. The one thing that made a difference in his fighting pattern which caused him to prevail among his victims was his use of four lightsabers, at once, that were a part of his collection of Jedi lightsabers, which caught his opponents off guard. With this ability, he was able to crush all in his path, leading to countless victories for the CIS. Asajj Ventress and the bounty hunter Durge were also effective commanders on the battlefield.
The Separatist Army was not merely composed of ground troops. It also deployed much larger weapons of war during the Clone Wars. Commerce Guild OG-9 homing spider droids were a common sight on Confederate frontlines, and tank droids, droid subfighters, and Federation AATs provided heavy firepower in countless conflicts. Even larger machines were used, including the powerful Protodeka, the massive Seismic tank, and the terrible Dark Reaper. However, weaknesses found in these machines were often exploited by the Republic.
Other military officials included General Whorm Loathsom, General Oro Dassyne, General Lok Durd and Commander Merai. Sentepeth Findos, later the Acting Viceroy of the Trade Federation was a lieutenant.
The territory of the Confederacy of Independent Systems varied in size a great deal during the course of its short history. As of 22 BBY, the Confederacy of Independent Systems numbered at least ten thousand star systems, as well as the various commercial factions with the planets they controlled, allied under its banner.
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Notes and references
- ↑ The New Essential Chronology
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Starships of the Galaxy (Saga Edition)
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Labyrinth of Evil
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith novelization
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Star Wars: The Clone Wars (video game)
- ↑ Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds: Clone Campaigns
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Star Wars: Clone Wars
- ↑ CIS Shadowfeed (Insider)
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Star Wars: Republic
- ↑ Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith
- ↑ Dark Lord: The Rise of Darth Vader
- ↑ Star Wars: Rogue Squadron III: Rebel Strike
- ↑ Star Wars: Empire at War: Forces of Corruption
- ↑ Survivor's Quest
- ↑ Revenge of the Sith: Incredible Cross-Sections
- ↑ Star Wars: Battlefront II
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Star Wars: The Clone Wars – "Heroes on Both Sides"
- ↑ Boba Fett: A New Threat