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Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi

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ReturnOfTheJediPoster1983
Star Wars Episode VI:
Return of the Jedi
Attribution
Director(s)

Richard Marquand

Producer(s)
Writer(s)
Starring
Music by

John Williams

Production information
Distributor

20th Century Fox

Released
Runtime
  • 132 min. (Theatrical)
  • 134 min. (Special Edition)
Budget

$32,500,000

Language

English

Chronology
Timeline

4 ABY[1] (39:3:3 GrS)[2]

Era

Rebellion era

Preceded by

Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back

Followed by

Star Wars Episode VII

"I am a Jedi, like my father before me."
Luke Skywalker — Gnome-speakernotesListen (file info)[src]

Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi is a 1983 science fiction film directed by Richard Marquand and written by Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas. It is the third film to be released in the Star Wars saga, and the sixth in terms of internal chronology.

The film is set in 4 ABY, one year after the Empire's occupation of Cloud City, when Luke Skywalker and friends travel to Tatooine to rescue their friend Han Solo from the vile Jabba the Hutt. The Empire prepares to crush the Rebellion with a more powerful Death Star, while the Rebel fleet mounts a massive attack on the space station. Luke Skywalker confronts his father, Darth Vader, in a final climactic duel before the evil Emperor.

The film debuted on May 25, 1983, and was released on VHS and LaserDisc in this form multiple times during the 1980s and 90s. The film was re-released with changes in 1997, and this version was later released on VHS and Laserdisc as well. The special edition arrived on DVD in 2004, but with further updates and changes to the 1997 versions. The original, unaltered version of the film was released as part of a new DVD set in September 2006. The film was re-released in the Blu-ray format in September of 2011.

Opening crawlEdit

Episode VI
RETURN OF THE JEDI
Luke Skywalker has returned to
his home planet of Tatooine in
an attempt to rescue his
friend Han Solo from the
clutches of the vile gangster
Jabba the Hutt.

Little does Luke know that the
GALACTIC EMPIRE has secretly
begun construction on a new
armored space station even
more powerful than the first
dreaded Death Star.

When completed, this ultimate
weapon will spell certain doom
for the small band of rebels
struggling to restore freedom
to the galaxy...

SynopsisEdit

BackstoryEdit

Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire reveals that construction has begun on a new Death Star, more powerful than the previous one. At the suggestion of Prince Xizor, Emperor Palpatine allowed the plans to this new station to "fall" into Rebel hands, at a deceptive price. The Bothan spies discovered that the plans were to be sent in a small computer onboard a fertilizer freighter, the Suprosa. They mounted an attack which proved successful, albeit at the cost of the lives of several Bothans, allowing the plans to find their way to the Alliance, ready to be decoded.

Meanwhile Luke, Leia, Lando and Chewie had already failed one attempt to rescue Han from Boba Fett. Leia takes the disguise of the Ubese bounty hunter Boushh, and Chewbacca is disguised as Snoova. On Tatooine, Boba Fett was successful in delivering Han Solo to Jabba. Luke with Lando, Leia, Chewie and the two droids, prepare one final plan to rescue Han.

PlotEdit

Return of the Jedi begins in 4 ABY, one year after the events of The Empire Strikes Back (although the novelization gives the time period as six months, The Essential Atlas specifies that the events of the films are separated by approximately eight months).[3]

Darth Vader, Dark Lord of the Sith, lands in the docking bay of the second uncompleted Death Star, which the Empire is creating, and is more powerful than the first. He is greeted by Moff Tiaan Jerjerrod, but demands construction be put back on schedule in order to complete the Death Star on time. Jerjerrod argues that they need more men, but quickly agrees to double their efforts when he learns that Emperor Palpatine is coming.

Meanwhile, 23-year-old Luke Skywalker and his company have arrived on Tatooine in the latest attempt to rescue Han Solo from Jabba the Hutt's desert palace. First the droids, R2-D2 and C-3PO, arrive with a holographic message from Skywalker pleading Jabba to release Solo, but they end up as slaves. That evening, Jabba's Palace Band (led by Sy Snootles and Max Rebo) entertains the slug-like creature's guests. Jabba is captivated by the graceful gyrations of his slave girl Oola. Oola resists his demands and is thrown into the pit of the rancor monster where she is immediately devoured. Suddenly, Princess Leia Organa (in the guise of bounty hunter Boushh) arrives with "prisoner" Chewbacca to collect part of the bounty Jabba himself sought after years earlier when he put a price on Solo's head. Jabba then sends Chewbacca to the prisons. That night, Boushh releases Han Solo from his carbonite coffin. Boushh then reveals himself to be Princess Leia and she kisses Han. As Han and Leia prepare to leave, they are caught by Jabba, his minions, and newly stolen droids. Both Solo and Leia are captured; Solo is put in the prison with Chewbacca while Jabba takes Leia as his personal slave girl, being forced to wear a revealing slave girl outfit and replacing Oola as his personal slave. To Leia's humiliation, she is then chained by the neck to Jabba's throne.

Luke the hutt
Luke Skywalker meets with Jabba the Hutt on Tatooine.

At dawn, Luke eventually arrives to make one final plea to Jabba to release Solo, but Jabba rejects the offer. Luke then Force Pulls a nearby blaster. He tries to shoot Jabba, but falls into the Rancor pit. Leia, unsure of what was happening, struggled against Jabba. Luke successfully kills the rancor by crushing it with the gate of its compound and piercing its neck with the spikes at the bottom of the gate, but he too is captured by Jabba's minions. Jabba, furious, strangles Leia. As punishment, Jabba, using C-3PO as a translator, commands Luke and his friends to be destroyed (over a course of a thousand years) by the man-eating Sarlacc at the Great Pit of Carkoon. Meanwhile Leia is kept on her chain laying in front of Jabba. Only Leia is not sentenced to death, as Jabba was attracted to her, and had plans of gaining pleasure from the enslaved princess.

Luke and his companions (with Lando Calrissian disguised as one of Jabba's prison guards) are taken to the Pit of Carkoon. However, with the help of R2-D2, Luke then retrieves his recently built lightsaber to battle his captors. Solo, by this time blinded from the side-effects of carbonization, accidentally activates the jetpack of bounty hunter Boba Fett when he turns around and smashes an axe in it. Fett then flies out of control, crashes and falls in the pit to be digested by the Sarlacc. Leia, meanwhile, with chain in hand, strangles Jabba to death. The droids are then set free, and jump off the sail barge. They land in the Tatooinian sand. Luke and Lando kill the remaining captors, then Luke rescues Leia, and both point the guns toward the heart of Jabba's Sail Barge. Luke and company escape with their lives before the gun discharges, destroying the sail barge. All of the crew (except for Luke and R2) depart Tatooine for the rendezvous point near Sullust (mentioned in The Empire Strikes Back) where the Rebel Alliance is assembling, while Luke and R2-D2 (in their X-wing) head for Dagobah to fulfill a promise to Yoda made some time earlier.

On the Death Star, Emperor Palpatine arrives and praises Lord Vader on his efforts in the construction of the Death Star. He also senses that Vader craves for the continuation of his search for his son, Luke. The old Sith Lord assures his apprentice that everything is going as he has planned.

Yoda's death
Yoda's death.

Luke and Artoo arrive on Dagobah to find a terminally-ill Yoda. Luke has returned to complete his Jedi training, but Yoda declares no further training is required. All that remains for Luke is to confront Vader. Yoda then reveals that Vader is indeed his father. The 900-year-old Jedi Master gives one last mention of wisdom to the young Jedi before he dies (and disappears the way Ben Kenobi did in A New Hope, thereby becoming one with the Force).

As Luke approaches his X-wing, the spirit form of Obi-Wan confirms that Vader was once Anakin Skywalker, a former Jedi Knight who turned to the dark side of the Force. Kenobi also reveals that Luke has a twin sister, hidden from Luke at birth as protection from the Emperor. Luke senses that his sister is actually Princess Leia. Kenobi warns Luke to bury his feelings, for they could in time "serve the Emperor".

At the rendezvous point near Sullust, the Rebel Alliance gathers to reveal plans to attack the Death Star. As part of the plans, Luke, Leia, Solo, Chewbacca, C-3PO, R2-D2, and a strike team must penetrate the shield generator on the forest moon of Endor in order to deactivate the shield if the Rebel fleet is to attack the Death Star. However, Vader knows this because he could sense that his son was with them and allows them to land on the planet. Luke senses his father as well and begins to believe that he would endanger the mission by coming.

The strike team lands on Endor only to be discovered by scout troopers. A speeder bike chase ensues, only for Leia to be thrown off her speeder and knocked unconscious. Luke and Han discover Leia's helmet, then they, with Chewbacca and the droids, try to find her. Leia is awakened by one of Endor's forest creatures, an Ewok named Wicket Wystri Warrick. Suddenly, another scout trooper discovers Leia, but Wicket does away with the trooper before rescuing Leia.

Luke, Han, Chewbacca, and the droids, meanwhile, fall into a booby trap set by the Ewoks. Artoo cuts open the net setting them free, but the Ewok tribe discovers Threepio and proclaims him to be their god. The droid's Human and Wookiee friends are taken prisoner, and the Ewoks proclaim Han to be the main course in a banquet in Threepio's honor. Discovered by Leia, Luke then uses the Force to levitate Threepio to show off his "great magic." Convinced of the Rebels' good intentions, the Ewoks set them free and later that evening makes them "part of the tribe," thereby the Ewoks agree to join the fight against the Empire. But Luke decides the time has come to leave Endor and face Darth Vader. Leia follows Luke out of the tribal gathering before she is revealed the truth that Vader is Luke's father and Leia is his sister. Leia is utterly speechless and shocked, but is comforted by Solo.

Vader arrives in his shuttle to a docking bay, and Luke, having already surrendered to the Empire, talks with Vader in an attempt to bring the Sith Lord out of the dark side of the Force, but to no avail. The Empire takes Luke into custody for transportation to the Death Star. The next day, the Rebels attempt to locate the shield generator, and the Rebel fleet enters hyperspace from Sullust to prepare for the final attack. Luke and Vader finally enter the Death Star and confront the Emperor, who looks forward to completing Luke's training and believes that while Vader would never turn from the dark side, neither would Luke. He also reveals that it was he who coordinated the Rebels finding the secret plans and locating the shield generator so that the Alliance can fall into a trap of Palpatine's devising.

Battle of Endor
The Battle of Endor.

The Rebels enter the heart of the shield generator, only to be taken prisoner by the Imperial forces. The fleet emerges from hyperspace for the battle, but discovers the shield is still up. As they contemplate their options, the Imperial fleet, which they were led to believe was away, appears and an intense battle begins. Han and the strike team are led out of the bunker by the stormtroopers, but the droids and the Ewoks have already orchestrated the attack on the Empire, and another intense battle commences with the Rebels and Ewoks on one side, the Empire on another. Palpatine shows to Luke the full power of the Death Star, and the station, now fully operational, destroys one of the Alliance's ships. Meanwhile, on Endor, the battle continues, with casualties (Rebel, stormtrooper, and Ewok) already mounting. Eventually, Han, Leia, and Chewbacca gain access to the bunker.

Return of the jedi 4
Father and son battle each other on the second Death Star.

Back on the Death Star, Luke, with the encouragement of Palpatine, lashes out at him with his lightsaber, only to be deflected by Vader, and the final duel between father and son begins. As Luke climbs onto a balcony, Vader throws his lightsaber at his son. It misses Luke and knocks the balcony down, taking Luke with it. Vader stalks for a hidden Luke to let down his guard, while quietly sensing within his son's mind that Luke has a sister. Vader threatens to turn her to the dark side if Luke will not, but Luke responds viciously in intense saber fighting of Djem So, up to the point where Luke strikes off Vader's right mechanical hand (just as Vader cut off Luke's in The Empire Strikes Back). Palpatine encourages Luke to kill his father so the young Jedi can take Vader's place at his side. But Luke controls his anger and throws aside his lightsaber. He declares himself to be a Jedi Knight as his father Anakin was before he turned over to the dark side and turned into Darth Vader.

Han, Leia, and Chewbacca escape from the bunker, just in time for its destruction, thus bringing down the shield. The Alliance is now free to attack the half-completed Death Star. On the Death Star, an enraged Palpatine declares that if Luke will not turn to the dark side, he will be destroyed, and uses Force lightning against the young Jedi. He slowly increases the intensity of the lightning, slowly torturing Luke. Luke calls out to his father to help him. But as the Emperor prepares to deliver the killing bolts, Vader appears. He looks at Luke and then the Emperor, confused whether to save his son or to continue serving his Master (just like when Vader had to choose between Padme or the Jedi Order in Revenge of the Sith).

Vader makes his decision - he cannot let one of the two last remaining links to his deceased wife, Padmé Amidala, die, so he lifts the Emperor into the air and throws him into the Death Star's power core/ reactor shaft. The Emperor disappears into the abyss, screaming, and then he is gone. There is a explosion but during the process of killing Palpatine, his lightning enters Vader's organic remains, striking Vader's life support system and his respirator (Vader's mechanical lungs), mortally wounding him. The Millennium Falcon and its remaining Rebel fighters enter the bowels of the Death Star, and some fighters engage in a point-blank attack on the Super Star Destroyer, causing the Imperial flagship's destruction.

Anakinredeemed
Anakin Skywalker's last moments.

Back on the Death Star, in the middle of an evacuation, Luke has carried his father's ravaged body to the foot of the former Vader's shuttle. Vader stops Luke and asks him to remove his mask so that he can look upon the face of his son, just for once, with his "own eyes." Luke removes the mask and sees the face of his father, Anakin Skywalker. Anakin's face is revealed to be pale white (from not seeing natural sunlight in 23 years), and his head remaining with some scars after healing for 23 years from his duel with Obi-Wan Kenobi (as depicted in Revenge of the Sith). Anakin tells Luke that his son was right - he did have good left in him, and asks him to tell his sister the same. With that, Anakin Skywalker, redeemed Jedi Knight, dies.

The Millennium Falcon and its strike force (in the last Rebel fighter inside) reach the Death Star's main reactor and fire concussion missiles and proton torpedoes at it, causing it to collapse. Luke escapes the Death Star with his father's body and flies out through the flames, and so do Wedge Antilles and the Millennium Falcon before the Death Star explodes.

Seeing the destruction from above, Han senses Leia's love for Luke. He offers to step aside when Luke arrives, but she tells Han that Luke is her brother. After a moment of shock and/or surprise, Han and Leia engage in a passionate kiss.

Anakinfuneral
Anakin Skywalker's cremation.
That evening, Luke sets a funeral pyre ablaze to burn the body of his father, still encased in the armor of Darth Vader. His father's organic body had become one with the Force. Luke Skywalker as written was believed to have only burnt the armor of his father, along with his cybernetics. Through the midst of the rising flames and fireworks, Rebel fighters streak across the sky in celebration of one of the greatest Rebel victories in the Galactic Civil War. The planets, Bespin, Tatooine,
MosEisley-celebration
Tatooine celebrates
Naboo, and Coruscant also celebrated. Luke is reunited with his companions Han, Lando, the droids, Chewbacca, the surviving Rebel fleet, the Ewoks, and his sister Leia. Luke then catches sight of the spirit figures of Obi-Wan Kenobi, Yoda, and a redeemed Anakin Skywalker. Luke is pleased - not only is he now and forever a Jedi, but his father is once again on the light side of the Force. Leia takes Luke by the hand and they rejoin their friends and colleagues as the spirits of Obi-Wan, Yoda, and Anakin continue to look on with pride.

AftermathEdit

The Thrawn Trilogy and The Truce at Bakura were the first novels to reveal that the Battle of Endor was by no means the end of the story. The destruction of the second Death Star, the loss of Darth Vader and the Emperor, and the defeat of the Imperial fleet represented a major turning point in the war, however. But immediately following the Rebel's victory, Luke Skywalker and his friends went off to defend the people of Bakura from the deadly incursions of the Ssi-ruuk invaders threatening to turn their citizens into a slave army. They were but the first, as the post-Return of the Jedi Marvel Star Wars series soon revealed that following a brief respite, the Nagai were to invade, followed on their heels by the Tof invasion. Their final defeat marked the start of the New Republic and the end of outside alien invasions until 25 ABY when the Yuuzhan Vong struck. In the interim, however, there was plenty of Imperial mopping up to do and lots of adventures.

Within five years, well over half of what was Imperial space was under the control of the New Republic. The war continued for another 15 years. The New Republic would be challenged by Imperial commanders, such as Ysanne Isard, Grand Admiral Thrawn, Admiral Daala, and Admiral Pellaeon. The New Republic would even be challenged by the Reborn Emperor—the spirit of Palpatine in a new clone body. But the New Republic would weather all these storms.

Fifteen years after the Battle of Endor Admiral Pellaeon and the other Imperial leaders realized that further military conflict with the New Republic would be fruitless. The remnants of the Imperial forces signed a peace treaty with the New Republic. The decades-long Galactic Civil War was finally over.

Also, after Jabba's death, Luke was held in high respect for deleting all the debts the Hutt posted on his unfortunate undertakers. Zorba the Hutt, Jabba's father, was furious when he heard of his son's demise. He took over Cloud City, and in the long run, posted bounties on whomever was responsible for Jabba's death, primarily Luke Skywalker and his sister, Leia Organa.

CreditsEdit

CastEdit



Crew[4]Edit

Credit Name
Directed By Richard Marquand
Screenplay By Lawrence Kasdan
George Lucas
Story By George Lucas
Produced By Howard G. Kazanjian
Executive Producer George Lucas
Co-Producers Robert Watts
Jim Bloom
Production Designer Norman Reynolds
Director Of Photography Alan Hume B.S.C.
Edited By Sean Barton
Marcia Lucas
Duwayne Dunham
Visual Effects Richard Edlund
Dennis Muren A.S.C.
Ken Ralston
Costume Designers Aggie Guerard Rodgers
Nilo Rodis-Jamero
Mechanical Effects Supervision Kit West
Make-Up And Creature Design Phil Tippett
Stuart Freeborn
Sound Design Ben Burtt
Music By John Williams
First Assistant Director/ Second Unit Director David Tomblin
Casting Mary Selway Buckley
Location Director Of Photography Jim Glennon
Additional Photography Jack Lowin
Production Sound Tony Dawe
Randy Thom
Supervising Music Editor Kenneth Wannberg
Music Recording Eric Tomlinson
Orchestrations Herbert W. Spencer
Chief Articulation Engineer Stuart Ziff
Production Supervisor Douglas Twiddy
Production Executive Robert Latham Brown
Unit Production Manager Miki Herman
Assistant Production Manager Patricia Carr
Associate To Producer Louis G. Friedman
Conceptual Artist Ralph McQuarrie
David Russell
Art Directors Fred Hole
James Schoppe
Set Decorators Michael Ford
Harry Lange
Property Master Peter Hancock
Chief Hairdresser Patricia McDermott
Stunt Co-Ordinator Glenn Randall
Stunt Arranger Peter Diamond
Production Controller Arthur Carroll
Production Accountant Margaret Mitchell
Second Assistant Directors Roy Button
Michael Steele
Chris Newman
Russell Lodge
Production Assistant Ian Bryce
Production Co-Ordinator Lata Ryan
Co-Ordination Assistants Sunni Kerwin
Gail Samuelson
Script Supervisor Pamela Mann Francis
Location Script Supervisor Bob Forest
Location Casting Dave Eman
Bill Lytle
Assistant To Mr. Kazanjian Kathleen Hartney
Assistant To Mr. Bloom John Syrjamaki Ross
Assistant To Mr. Lucas Jane Bay
Assistant Art Directors Michael Lamont
John Fenner
Richard Dawking
Set Dresser Doug Von Koss
Construction Manager Bill Welch
Assistant Construction Manager Alan Booth
Construction Supervisor Roger Irvin
General Foreman Bill Iiams
Construction Foremen Greg Callas
Guy Clause
Doug Elliott
Stan Wakashige
Paint Foreman Gary Clark
Sketch Artist Roy Carnon
Scenic Artist Ted Michell
Decor And Lettering Artist Bob Walker
Set Draftsmen Reg Bream
Mark Billerman
Chris Campbell
Production Buyer David Lusby
Construction Storeman David Middleton
Operating Cameramen Alec Mills
Tom Laughridge
Mike Benson
Focus Pullers Michael Frift
Chris Tanner
Assistant Cameramen Leo Napolitano
Bob La Bonge
Second Assistant Cameramen Simon Hume
Steve Tate
Martin Kenzie
Michael Glennon
Gaffers Mike Pantages
Bob Bremner
Aerial Photography Ron Goodman
Margaret Herron
Helicopter Pilot Mark Wolfe
Key Grip Dick Dova Spah
Best Boy Joe Crowley
Dolly Grip Chunky Huse
Reg Hall
Matte Photography Consultant Stanley Sayer, B.S.C.
Rigging Gaffers Clark Garland
Tommy Brown
Chief Make-Up Artists Tom Smith
Graham Freeborn
Make-Up Artists Peter Robb King
Dickie Mills
Kay Freeborn
Nick Dudman
Hairdressers Mike Lockey
Paul Le Blanc
Assistant Articulation Engineer Eben Stromquist
Armature Designer Peter Ronzani
Plastic Designer Richard Davis
Sculptural Designers Chuck Wiley
James Howard
Key Sculptors Dave Carson
Tony McVey
Dave Sosalla
Judy Elkins
Derek Howarth
Chief Moldmaker Wesley Seeds
Moldmaker Ron Young
Creature Technicians Randy Dutra
Kirk Thatcher
Dan Howard
James Isaac
Brian Turner
Jeanne Lauren
Richard Spah, Jr.
Ethan Wiley
Creature Consultants Jon Berg
Chris Walas
Production/ Creature Co-Ordinator Patty Blau
Latex Foam Lab Supervisor Tom McLaughlin
Animatronics Engineer John Coppinger
Wardrobe Supervisor Ron Beck
Costume Supervisor Mary Elizabeth Still
Wardrobe Mistress Janet Tebrooke
Shop Manager Jenny Green
Jeweler Richard Miller
Creature Costumers Barbara Kassal
Edwina Pellikka
Anne Polland
Elvira Angelinetta
Assistant Property Master Charles Torbett
Property Supervisors Dan Coangelo
Brian Lofthouse
Property Holly Walker
Ivan Van Perre
Propmakers Bill Hargreaves
Richard Peters
Master Carpenter Bert Long
Master Plasterer Kenny Clarke
Master Painter Eric Shirtcliffe
Supervising Rigger Red Lawrence
Supervising Stagehand Eddie Burke
Sail Co-Ordinators Bill Kreysler
Warwick Tompkins
Sails Engineering Derrick Baylis
Peggy Kashuba
Assistant Film Editors Steve Starkey
Conrad Buff
Phil Sanderson
Nick Hosker
Debra McDermott
Clive Hartley
Sound Effects Editors Richard Burrow
Teresa Eckton
Ken Fischer
Dialogue Editors Laurel Ladevich
Curt Schulkey
Bonnie Koehler
Vickie Rose Sampson
Assistant Sound Editors Chris Weir
Bill Mann
Gloria Borders
Suzanne Fox
Kathy Ryan
Nancy Jencks
Mary Helen Leasman
Re-Recording Mixers Gary Summers
Roger Savage
Ben Burtt
Randy Thom
Re-Recording Engineer Tomlinson Holman
Boom Operators David Batchelor
David Parker
Sound Assistants Shep Dawe
Jim Manson
Audio Engineers T.M. Christopher
Catherine Coombs
Kris Handwerk
K.C. Hodenfield
Howie
Tom Johnson
Brian Kelly
James Kessler
Susan Leahy
Robert Marty
Scott Robinson
Dennie Thorpe
John Watson
English Lyrics Joseph Williams
Huttese Lyrics Annie Arbogast
Ewokese Lyrics Ben Burtt
Special Effects Supervisor Roy Arbogast
Special Effects Foreman William David Lee
Special Effects Floor Controller Ian Wingrove
Senior Effects Technician Peter Dawson
Chief Electronics Technician Ron Hone
Wire Specialist Bob Harman
Location Special Effects Kevin Pike
Mike Wood
Choreographer Gillian Gregory
Location Choreographer Wendy Rogers
Production Accountant Colin Hurren
Assistant Accountants Sheala Daniell
Barbara Harley
Location Accountants Diane Dankwardt
Pinki Ragan
Transportation Co-Ordinator Gene Schwartz
Transportation Captains John Feinblatt
H. Lee Noblitt
Studio Transportation Managers Vic Minay
Mark La Bonge
Location Contact Lennie Fike
Still Photographers Albert Clarke
Ralph Nelson, Jr.
Unit Publicist Gordon Arnell
Assistant Publicist June Broom
Research Deborah Fine
Miniature And Optical Effects Unit Industrial Light And Magic
Art Director-Visual Effects Joe Johnston
Optical Photography Supervisor Bruce Nicholson
General Manager, Ilm Tom Smith
Production Supervisor Patricia Rose Duignan
Matte Painting Supervisor Michael Pangrazio
Modelshop Supervisors Lorne Peterson
Steve Gawley
Animation Supervisor James Keefer
Supervising Visual Effects Editor Arthur Repola
Effects Cameramen Don Dow
Michael J. McAlister
Bill Neil
Scott Farrar
Selwyn Eddy III
Michael Owens
Robert Elswit
Rick Fichter
Stewart Barbee
Mark Gredell
David Hardburger
Assistant Cameramen Pat Sweeney
Kim Marks
Robert Hill
Ray Gilberti
Randy Johnson
Patrick McArdle
Peter Daulton
Bessie Wiley
Maryan Evans
Toby Heindel
David Fincher
Peter Romano
Production Co-Ordinators Warren Franklin
Laurie Vermont
Optical Printer Operators John Ellis
David Berry
Kenneth Smith
Donald Clark
Mark Vargo
James Lim
Optical Line-Up Tom Rosseter
Ed L. Jones
Ralph Gordon
Philip Barberio
Lab Technicians Tim Geideman
Ducan Myers
Michael Moore
Production Illustrator George Jenson
Matte Painting Artists Chris Evans
Frank Ordaz
Matte Photography Neil Krepela
Craig Barron
Stop Motion Animator Tom St. Amand
Chief Model Makers Paul Huston
Charles Bailey
Michael Glenn
Fulmer
Ease Owyeung
Model Makers William George
Marc Thorpe
Scott Marshall
Sean Casey
Larry Tan
Barbara Gallucci
Jeff Mann
Ira Keeler
Bill Beck
Mike Cochrane
Barbara Affonso
Bill Buttfield
Marghi McMahon
Randy Ottenberg
Head Effects Animators Garry Waller
Kimberly Knowlton
Effects Animators Terry Windell
Renee Holt
Mike Lessa
Samuel Comstock
Rob La Duca
Annick Therrien
Suki Stern
Margot Pipkin
Visual Effects Editors Howard Stein
Peter Amundson
Bill Kimberlin
Assistant Visual Effects Editors Robert Chrisoulis
Michael Gleason
Jay Ignaszewski
Joe Class
Supervising Stage Technician Ted Moehnke
Stage Technicians Patrick Fitzsimmons
Bob Finley Iii
Ed Hirsh
John McLeod
Peter Stolz
Dave Childers
Harold Cole
Merlin Ohm
Joe Fulmer
Lance Brackett
Pyrotechnicians Thaine Morris
Dave Pier
Supervisor-Still Photography Terry Chostner
Still Photographers Roberto McGrath
Kerry Nordquist
Electronic System Designers Jerry Jeffress
Kris Brown
Electronic Engineers Mike Mackenzie
Marty Brenneis
Computer Graphics William Reeves
Tom Duff
Equipment Engineering Supervisor Gene Whiteman
Machinists Udo Pampel
Conrad Bonderson
Apprentice Machinists David Hanks
Chris Rand
Design Engineer Mike Bolles
Equipment Support Staff Wade Childress
Michael J. Smith
Cristi McCarthy
Ed Tennler
Administrative Staff Chrissie England
Laura Kaysen
Paula Karsh
Karen Ayers
Sonja Paulsen
Karen Dube
Production Assistants Susan Fritz-Monahan
Kathy Shine
Steadicam Garrett Brown
Plate Photography
Ultra High Speed Photography Bruce Hill Productions
Color Timers Jim Schurmann
Bob Hagans
Negative Cutter Sunrise Film, Inc.
Additional Optical Effects Lookout Mountain Films
Pacific Title
Monaco Film Labs
California Film
Visual Concepts Engineering
Movie Magic
Van Der Veer Photo Effects

Special Edition CrewEdit

Credit Name
Producer Rick McCallum
Editor T.M. Christopher
Sound Designer Ben Burtt
Re-Recording Mixer Gary Summers
First Assistant Editor Samuel Hinckley
Assistant Editor Robert Marty
Assistant Avid Editors Mike Jackson
Robin Lee
Sound Editor Teresa Eckton
Assistant Sound Editor Lisa Storer
Re-Recordist Ronald G. Roumas
Digital Mix Technician Gary A. Rizzo
Archivist Tim Fox
Optical Supervisors Phillip Feiner
Chris Bushman
Film Restoration Supervisor Pete Comandini
Color Timer Robert J. Raring
Negative Continuity Ray Sabo
Negative Cutter Bob Hart
Special Edition Digital Remastering Provided By Skywalker Sound A Lucas Digital Ltd. Company
Film Restoration Consultant Leon Briggs
Optical Restoration Pacific Title
Film Restoration By YCM Laboratories
Industrial Light And Magic
Visual Effects Supervisor Dave Carson
Visual Effects Producer Tom Kennedy
Computer Graphics Supervisor Tom Hutchinson
Visual Effects Art Director George Hull
Visual Effects Editor Michael McGovern
Color Timing Supervisor Bruce Vecchitto
Visual Effects Coordinator Lisa Todd
Digital Effects Artists Don Butler
Michael Conte
Howard Gersh
Marshall Krasser
Tia Marshall
Stuart Maschwitz
Julie Neary
Ken Nielsen
Eddie Pasquarello
Ricardo Ramos
Tom Rosseter
Lawrence Tan
Paul Theren
Hans Uhlig
Li-Hsein Wei
Ron Woodall
Digital Matte Artists Ronn Brown
Eric Chauvin
Brian Flora
William Mather
3d Matchmove Artist James Hagedorn
Digital Paint & Roto Artists Lisa Drostova
Heidi Zabit
Chief Creature Maker Howie Weed
Model & Creature Makers Carol Bauman
Don Bies
Giovanni Donovan
Wendy Morton
Anne Polland
Mark Siegel
Steven Walton
Sabre Group Supervisor Daniel McNamara
Sabre Artists Rita Zimmerman
Chad Taylor
Mary McCulloch
Grant Guenin
Caitlin Content
Software Research And Development David Benson
Jim Hourihan
Zoran Kacic-Alesic
Florian Kainz
Jeff Yost
Digital Scanning Supervisor Joshua Pines
Digital Scanning Operators Randall Bean
Michael Ellis
Earl Beyer
Negative Supervisor Doug Jones
Negative Line-Up Andrea Biklian
Tim Geideman
Projectionist Tim Greenwood
Digital Plate Restoration Melissa Monterrosa
Mike Van Eps
Wendy Hendrickson
Assistant Visual Effects Art Director Alex Laurant
Assistant Visual Effects Editor John Bartle
Video Editor Angela Leaper
Animatic Artist Jonathan Rothbart
Digital Effects Technical Assistants Okan Ataman
Peter Chesloff
Joshua Levine
Dawn Matheson
Daniel Shumaker
Digital Effects Resource Assistant Daniel Brimer
Visual Effects Production Staff Julie Creighton
Joshua Marks
Video Assistants Dawn Martin
Wendy Bell
Production Engineering Ken Beyer
Ken Corvino
Gary Meyer
Aerial Camera System By Wesscam Camera Systems (Europe)
Aerial Cameraman Assistant Ron Goodman
Margaret Herron
Helicopter Supplied By Dollar Air Services Limited
Pilot Mark Wolfe
Cloud Plates Photographed With Astrovision(c) By Continental Camera Systems Inc.
Snow Vehicles Supplied ByAktiv Fischer
R2 Bodies Fabricated By White Horse Toy Company
Special Assistance From Giltspur Engineering And Compair
Photographed On The Hardengerjekulan Glacier, Finse, Norway And At Emi - Elstree Studios, Borehamwood, England
Music Recorded At Anvil Studios, Denham, England
Re-Recording At Samuel Goldwyn Studios, Los Angeles, California
Special Visual Effects Produced At Industrial Light And Magic, Marin County, California

AppearancesEdit

By type 
Characters Creatures Droid models Events Locations
Organizations and titles Sentient species Vehicles and vessels Weapons and technology Miscellanea

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Events

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Language

Behind the scenesEdit

ProductionEdit

Blue Harvest
"When shooting Jedi in the United States we called the film Blue Harvest. Camera slates, invoices, hotel reservations, call sheets, production reports, and crew hats and T-shirts all read Blue Harvest. So when a visitor would ask, 'what are you shooting' and we said Blue Harvest, they went on their way. Can you imagine what would have happened if we had said, 'We're shooting the next film in the Star Wars trilogy'?""
Howard Kazanjian, producer[src]

For several reasons, the working title of the project was Blue Harvest and dubbed "Horror Beyond Imagination" to engender no interest whatsoever in order to disguise what the production crew was really filming from fans and the prying eyes of the press. George Lucas had severed all his remaining ties to the Hollywood system out of a feeling of persecution after the success of The Empire Strikes Back and had become a truly independent filmmaker. Lucasfilm is a non-union company, and despite George Lucas's stature and clout, that, says Howard Kazanjian in Empire of Dreams, made acquiring shooting locations more difficult and more expensive, even though A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back were mammoth hits.

The title was used in all areas where it seemed necessary. The Blue Harvest ruse, credited to producer Howard Kazanjian, was very thorough, emblazoning the fictitious film's logo on a wide range of film production items including shirts, caps, coats, buttons, signs, invoices and stationery. The Blue Harvest facade did give a bit of a wink and nod to its true purpose however, as the supposed film's logo (intentionally or unintentionally) utilized the distinctive Star Wars logo lettering style. In particular the ruse was employed during location filming in Yuma, Arizona. The filming took place in the dunes over the Thanksgiving holiday, where there was a reported crowd of 35,000 dune buggy enthusiasts. After erecting a chain link fence, employing a huge security force, and dodging a myriad of press inquiries, in the end approximately sixty fans saw through the ruse and refused to leave until they obtained a few autographs and photos.[source?]

The film's director was the late Richard Marquand, who passed away in 1987 of a heart ailment, but reports have suggested that George Lucas was still heavily involved in the shooting of Return of the Jedi and likely directed some of the second unit work personally when shooting threatened to go over schedule. Lucas admits in the documentary Empire of Dreams that he had to often be on the set due to Marquand's relative inexperience with special effects, but comments by The Empire Strikes Back director Irvin Kershner on that film's DVD audio commentary track suggests that Lucas, who acted more as an advisor on The Empire Strikes Back, had a similar role on the production of Return of the Jedi. Moreover, George Lucas, according to Kershner, called The Empire Strikes Back Kershner's movie, not his.

Some have noted the differences between Richard Marquand's direction style and Lucas's direction style and say that they're dissimilar. The screenplay was written by Lawrence Kasdan and Lucas (with uncredited contributions by David Webb Peoples), based on Lucas's story. Howard G. Kazanjian served as producer.

RotjOrig
Original movie poster

The documentary Empire of Dreams states that George Lucas initially intended to call the film Return of the Jedi, but then changed it to Revenge of the Jedi when he was told by Lawrence Kasdan that "Return" was a weak title. Only a few weeks before the film's release did Lucas change the title back to Return of the Jedi. In interviews, Lucas said that the reason for the change is that a Jedi wouldn't seek revenge. There are many though who speculate that George Lucas had planned to call the film Return of the Jedi all along, and only used "Revenge" as a means to throw off merchandise counterfeiters. It has also been claimed that the reason for the change was because the working title of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan was The Vengeance of Khan, and that the title was changed because of its similarity to Revenge of the Jedi. In the novel William Shatner's Star Trek Movie Memories, director Nicholas Meyer confirmed that he didn't believe that 20th Century Fox would allow Paramount to change his film's title from "The Undiscovered Country" to "The Vengeance of Khan" because of the making of Revenge of the Jedi. Nevertheless, all of this potential controversy was erased when Star Trek II was retitled "The Wrath of Khan" and Revenge of the Jedi finally became Return of the Jedi. In any event, the working title was partially reused for Episode III: Revenge of the Sith.

Filming took place from January 11 to May 20, 1982 in Redwood National Park forests in California, the Yuma desert in Arizona, and at the Elstree Studios, United Kingdom.

With a massive worldwide marketing campaign, Star Wars series artist Drew Struzan created the iconic and distinctive images for the movie posters and other advertising. In the film's release poster, Luke Skywalker is depicted holding a blue lightsaber—a lightsaber color that does not appear in the film. His new lightsaber is green—although it is blue in one trailer, suggesting the decision to make it green was taken late in production. In fact, the decision was made to make Luke's blade contrast with the blue sky of Tatooine and make it more visible during the skirmish at Carkoon.[source?]

A serious wardrobe problem was present in the film in that all Imperial characters, regardless of rank, are shown wearing identical rank insignia, being that of an Imperial Navy Commander. This was not recognized by the production staff until halfway through the film's shooting and the error remained uncorrected in the final version of the film.

Prior to production of the film, Mark Hamill speculated that Luke would end up turning to the Dark Side midway through the film, with the main conflict being whether Luke can return to the light side or not. A similar conflict would emerge in the comic serial Dark Empire.

Major musical themes:

Critical reactionEdit

While critical reception of the film was generally positive, Return of the Jedi is considered by some critics and many fans as the weakest film of the original trilogy. Some indication of public opinion can be gleaned by its relatively modest 106th place ranking in the Internet Movie Database's Top 250 films list. As a comparison, A New Hope is ranked at #14, and The Empire Strikes Back is ranked #11, as of November 14, 2010.

Revenge of the jedi poster
Revenge of the Jedi poster

While the entire Jabba the Hutt sequence and the action set pieces, particularly the speeder bike chase on the Endor moon, the space battle between Rebel and Imperial pilots, and Luke Skywalker's duel against Darth Vader are well-regarded, the ground battle between the Ewoks and the Stormtroopers remains a bone of contention. A large number of fans believe George Lucas pushed the "cutesy" factor with the Ewoks, especially with the belief that he did it to make it more marketable to children; and some of the production staff, such as Harrison Ford, felt awkward throughout the filming process about the Ewoks. However, other reasons were cited, such as the Wookiees, which were planned for that instance, being vetoed by Lucas due to the prior films showing that they were quite capable with technology via Chewbacca. In addition, fans seem to be rather divided on the premise that an extremely primitive race of small creatures could, albeit with minimal aid, defeat an armed ground force comprising the Empire's best troops. Some fans call it ludicrous, while others credit the Ewoks' bravery, ingenuity, and determination, and draw comparisons between modern warfare in which familiarity with the terrain and guerrilla tactics can results in the defeat of a numerically and technologically superior force. In the commentary for the 2004 DVD release, Lucas explained that the Ewoks were an allegory for a technologically primitive force overcoming a powerful Empire, and compared it to examples like the Vietnam War, Atilla the Hun and the Roman Empire, and the American Revolutionary War. The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film reveals that the idea emerged and evolved from Lucas's interest in the Vietnam War in making Apocalypse Now, in which specifically the primitive Vietcong overcame the United States. This has been criticised by some, such as conservative commentator Bill Whittle, in the webseries Afterburner episode "Han Shot First," for its perceived offensive connotations and morally ambiguous implications. However, in the contemporary documentary From Star Wars to Jedi, Lucas states that the Vietnam War was merely the inspiration from which the subplot evolved, rather than a political thesis.[6]

However, contemporary critics seem to have been largely complimentary. In 1983, the late Roger Ebert gave the film a four-star rating, and Gary Arnold of the Washington Post described Return of the Jedi as "a triumph."

In Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, Anakin Skywalker is played by Hayden Christensen. However, in the original and Special Edition version of Return of the Jedi, a much older actor named Sebastian Shaw played both the dying Anakin Skywalker and his Force ghost. In the DVD release, Anakin's ghost has become a young man, played by Hayden Christensen, and this is considered the canon version of the ghost.

Lucas explains in the DVD commentary that Anakin has learned to control his life force beyond death, just as Obi-Wan Kenobi and Yoda had before him. (This is very briefly explained in Revenge of the Sith). So rather than appear as the older man who was Darth Vader, Anakin is able to return to the young man he once was before turning to the dark side.

The basic controversy arises from critics of Lucas's ongoing changes to all of the Star Wars films. On one hand, the redemption of Luke's father as an older man suggests that this is the image that should represent him after death. On the other, the older man was arguably never Anakin Skywalker until his final moments, and the vision of Hayden Christensen brings the story full circle - Darth Vader defeated, Anakin Skywalker at rest. Many fans argue that the insertion of Christensen is disrespectful toward Shaw.

Re-releasesEdit

As with the other two films of his original trilogy, Lucas issued a Special Edition of Return of the Jedi in 1997, making a number of cosmetic changes and additions, including replacing a piece of music from the closing scene.

On September 21, 2004 the three original movies were finally released on DVD. There have a few further minor changes to the film on this release—such as sound effects and improvements to the visual quality of the film.

During the sequence when the Emperor's defeat at Endor is announced to the galaxy, an additional scene showing the celebrations on Theed, Naboo was shown. A Gungan can be heard yelling "Wesa free" in this scene.

In the scene showing the people of Coruscant celebrating, the Senate Building and the Jedi Temple have been added in the background.

Sebastian Shaw played Anakin in the hangar bay and in the final celebration scene in the original film. In the DVD release, Shaw continued to be Anakin in the hangar bay scene. Look closely and you will see that Shaw's bushy eyebrows have now been digitally removed. However, during the final celebration, Shaw was replaced by Hayden Christensen. In this release Anakin appeared as he did in Episode III. Instead of simply reshooting the Force ghost of Anakin with Hayden, test footage of Hayden's head was digitally grafted to the body of Sebastian Shaw playing the role.

On September 12, 2006, Lucasfilm released a two-disc set consisting of the 2004 Special Edition and the unaltered original theatrical version. This release lasted until December 31, 2006.

With the release of the third episode that depicts how and why Anakin Skywalker turned to the dark side of the Force, George Lucas once again altered Return of the Jedi to strengthen the relationship between the original trilogy to the prequel trilogy.

The film was re-released in the Blu-ray format in September of 2011.[7]

Deleted scenesEdit

NovelizationEdit

The novelization of Return of the Jedi was written by James Kahn. While it contains many scenes that were deleted from the final cut, with the release of Episode III, Kahn's assertion that Anakin Skywalker's memories of "lava crawling up his back" have proved to be in error. In the novelization of Return of the Jedi, Obi-Wan Kenobi recounts to Luke Skywalker that he and Anakin Skywalker had battled and that his father "fell into a molten pit."

The novelization also erroneously refers to Owen Lars as Obi-Wan Kenobi's brother. Owen Lars is, in fact, Anakin Skywalker's step brother.

Ironically, Joel and Nash Edgerton, Owen's portratyer and Ewan McGregor's Obi-Wan stunt double in the prequel trilogy, are brothers in real life.

At the beginning of the confrontation in Palpatine's throne room, the Emperor reads Luke's mind and discovers that Yoda completed Luke's Jedi training, and that Yoda is now dead. However, he gives no sign of recognition on hearing Yoda's name.

Radio dramaEdit

While the first two Star Wars movies were adapted for radio in the early 1980s, it was not until 1996 that a radio version of Return of the Jedi was heard. The adaptation was written by Brian Daley and was produced for and broadcast on National Public Radio. See Star Wars (radio) for details.

ComicsEdit

The film was adapted into comics form by Marvel Comics. Unlike the earlier film adaptations, it was not released as part of the ongoing Star Wars series, but as a four-part (1 2 3 4) mini-series of its own. The adaptation was scripted by Archie Goodwin and illustrated by Al Williamson.

A manga adaptation illustrated by Shin-Ichi Hiromoto was released in Japan in 1998 and in the United States in 1999.

CollectiblesEdit

In 2007, in honor of Star Wars 30th anniversary, Hasbro released a series of commemorative tins. The Return of the Jedi tin contained Darth Vader, a scout trooper, a rebel trooper, and Princess Leia. The tin was number six of six.

Notes and referencesEdit

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

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