Stormtroopers were the assault/policing troops of the Galactic Empire. Dissenting citizens referred to them as bucketheads, a derogatory nickname inspired by the bucket-shaped helmets of stormtroopers. They wore white armor made from plastoid over a black body glove which, in addition to creating an imposing image, was outfitted with a wide array of survival equipment and temperature controls that allowed its wearer to survive in most environments, and were designed to disperse blaster bolt energy. As members of the Stormtrooper Corps, an independent branch that operated under the Imperial Army, stormtroopers represented the backbone of the Imperial Military—trained for total obedience to the command hierarchy, as well as absolute loyalty to Emperor Sheev Palpatine and the Imperial regime. Stormtroopers were trained at Imperial Academies, and used a variety of weapons.
In the aftermath of the Clone Wars, the clone troopers who served the Galactic Republic became the first stormtroopers, tasked with suppressing rebellious worlds and enforcing the new Emperor's will across the galaxy. Over time the clones were retired from Imperial service, leaving the stormtrooper ranks open to birth-born human recruits. Though they fought against the Rebel Alliance throughout the Galactic Civil War, the Empire was ultimately defeated and the Emperor slain at the Battle of Endor. The remnants of the Empire were subsequently compelled by the New Republic to sign the Galactic Concordance. Among its conditions, the peace treaty forbade the recruitment and mobilization of stormtroopers. However, a new generation of stormtroopers would be trained under the guidance of the First Order, a military junta inspired by Imperial ideology and determined to reclaim the legacy of the Empire. In Stormtrooper command, A squad of stormtroopers consisted of 10 stormtroopers, with 5 squads in a platoon, 4 platoons in a company, 4 companies in a battalion, 4 battalions in a regiment, and 4 regiments in a legion, for 12,800 troopers in a legion.
- "Stormtroopers? Here? We're in danger. I must tell the others. Oh, no! I've been shot!"
The stormtroopers represented the ultimate evolution of the clone troopers, the soldiers who fought on the Galactic Republic's side against the Confederacy of Independent Systems in a prolonged and protracted conflict that came to be known as the Clone Wars. Following the execution of the Separatist Council, Sheev Palpatine, then Supreme Chancellor of the Republic, transformed the democratic government into an autocratic regime of his own, which he dubbed the First Galactic Empire
With the development of the new Imperial war machine, the clone trooper armor was upgraded. Additionally, the new Emperor ordered the extermination of the Jedi Order, the members of which had served as officers in the Grand Army of the Republic during the Clone Wars. Within the new regime, the clone troopers—now known as stormtroopers—were placed under the guidance of Imperial officers and governors instead of Clone commanders or officers.
Following the transition, stormtroopers were used to bring any remaining Separatist worlds into line. As the clones' accelerated aging process began causing their physical skills and abilities to deteriorate, they were replaced by non-clone volunteers and conscripts. Nonetheless, several clone troopers would remain in service to the Galactic Empire, with some serving as training instructors in the Imperial Academy, while other members remained in active duty such as Sergeant Crest and TX-828, who was still active following the Battle of Yavin.
During the Galactic Civil War, the Emperor's enforcer Darth Vader commanded a battalion of stormtroopers who served him loyally. With those troops, Vader captured Princess Leia Organa's Alderaan cruiser Tantive IV over Tatooine shortly before the Battle of Yavin. Stormtroopers were also used to arrest dissidents on numerous worlds including Akiva and Zeitooine. Stormtroopers also saw action against Rebel Alliance forces during the Battle of Hoth, the Mid Rim Retreat, and the Battle of Endor.
After the events on Endor, stormtroopers saw action on many fronts against the armed forces of the New Republic, the successor government to the Rebel Alliance. Numerous stormtroopers were killed on worlds as far flung as Uyter, Naalol, and Akiva. New Republic forces also took many stormtroopers prisoner with many prisoners being sent to the New Republic capital of Chandrila. On one occasion, the New Republic public relations official Olia Choko personally stopped New Republic soldiers from parading stormtrooper prisoners through the streets of Hanna City. Later, stormtroopers saw action during the liberation of Kashyyyk and the Battle of Jakku.
Following the defeat of the Empire at Jakku, the remnants of the Empire signed the Galactic Concordance with the New Republic. The Galactic Concordance forbade the recruitment and mobilization of stormtrooper forces and forced the Empire to abandon its network of Imperial Academies. The Imperial remnants eventually retreated to the Unknown Regions where they reorganised themselves as the First Order. Defying the Galactic Concordance, the First Order recruited and mobilized new stormtroopers. The new stormtroopers were influenced by the ideas of Brendol Hux, a former commandant at the Arkanis Academy. The First Order's stormtroopers were equipped with sleeker armor and powerful weaponry.
- "Cadets, you entered this facility as children. And in a few short weeks, you will leave as soldiers. By the time you complete your training, you will be prepared to serve your Emperor."
- ―Cumberlayne Aresko
Unlike their predecessors, the majority of stormtroopers were non-clone recruits. Imperial cadets were shipped off to Imperial Academies, and subjected to rigorous training programs in order to produce highly trained shock troopers fiercely loyal to the Empire. Stormtroopers were trained to disregard fallen comrades in battle, and to press on, no matter the cost, even when the odds were stacked against them.
Although they were a rare sight, women were not prohibited from serving in the ranks of the stormtroopers. During training, female cadets were placed in all-female units. Unit Forn was an all-female unit at the Academy for Young Imperials on Lothal. who were selected for stormtrooper training had to undergo extra reconditioning. This has the effect of dehumanizing the cadets, who came to refer to themselves by their operating numbers rather than their names. One such cadet was Ames Bunkle, an acquaintance of Zare Leonis.
Among other things, cadets would train to fire blasters, learn to pilot Imperial walkers, and the ruthlessness it took to become a stormtrooper. Cadets who attended Imperial Academies also underwent simulated obstacle courses in the Well, which were designed to test their strength, agility, reflexes and intelligence. Such courses and tests of skill became increasingly difficult over time, and accountability for losses were harsh.
While cadets attended the academy, they wore white uniforms and specialized helmets, similar to the standard stormtrooper or pilot gear. Aside from their basic training, many cadets were also assigned other non-combat duties on base. Such duties offered cadets the opportunity to gain experience over their peers, and were often presented as rewards for excellent performance during training exercises.
As cadets were being evaluated, the officers in charge were often instructed to take note of performance that might denote an affinity for the Force, and report it to one of their superiors. Cadets who met this special criteria were taken by the Grand Inquisitor and forcibly inducted into Project Harvester, a top secret Imperial program based on Arkanis. Cadet Zare's older sister Dhara Leonis was one known subject of Project Harvester. Another prospective subject was Jai Kell, who managed to escape due to the help of Ezra Bridger.
Stormtrooper and other Imperial cadets also assisted in law enforcement operations. Following a spate of rebel activity on Lothal, Imperial cadets there were used to search homes and streets for illegal activities, detain the children of fugitives, and to raid smugglers. During these law enforcements operations, some cadets like Nazhros Oleg came to flout their new-found powers; a trait that was encouraged by some officers like Captain Piers Roddance. Some prospective officer cadets like Leonis and Oleg were also given the chance to lead adult stormtroopers in these raids. Cadets also had their backgrounds investigated for any sign of criminal connections and other subversive activities.
- "I can't see a thing in this helmet!"
- ―Luke Skywalker
Stormtroopers wore a distinctive set of white armor that was intended to instill fear in the Empire's subjects, while also providing the soldiers with an extended range of survival equipment and temperature controls. Their armor was also specifically designed to dissipate blaster shots and stormtroopers were known to recover after being shot. The helmet provided cranial protection, filtered air, and contained enhanced vision, communication systems and a effective HUD (heads up display) that could help locate threats, aid in navigation, and to help alert the wearer. Rank was determined by a color coded pauldron worn over the left shoulder, with orange or red representing the rank of commander, black indicating an enlisted trooper, and white representing a sergeant. Sometimes on the pauldrons they had specific symbols distinguishing who they were serving, exemplified by Grand Admiral Thrawn's troops, who had a styalised chimaera on their pauldrons. They also had a utility belt and a grappling hook attached to it, and primarily used the E-11 blaster rifle, however they also occasionally utilized the DLT-20A laser rifle or DLT-19 heavy blaster rifle. However, stormtrooper armor was not without its faults. The plates made running harder and offered little protection against a large scale pulse detonations and blunt weapons.
By 28 ABY, stormtrooper helmets and armor were collected by individuals like the New Republic senator Ransolm Casterfo, who had an interest in Imperial "artifacts." Several of Casterfo's Centrist senators including Apolin and Fatil also admired and collected Imperial uniforms and armor. In addition, Imperial armor and other artifacts also sold at markets on Chrome Citadel.
Outside of combat and security details, stormtrooper officers wore black dress tunics, caps, and boots, as well as code cylinders, rank insignia plaques, officer's disks conform to the standards of the Imperial Navy.
In addition to the "standard" troops, the Empire had created a number of specialized stormtrooper units assembled to operate on varied planets and climates within its territory. Scout troopers wore lighter armor and used speeder bikes to patrol the perimeter of the Imperial garrisons they were assigned to.
Sniper troopers were specialists pulled from Scout trooper ranks and wielded the deadly E-11s long-range blaster. Stormtrooper snipers were also pulled from standard stormtrooper ranks, and wore a blue pauldron over their shoulder and had a visor attached to their helmet, along with a black bandolier across their chest plate. 
Sandtroopers wore modified armor that allowed them to survive on desert worlds such as Tatooine. To deal with problems on frozen environments, the Empire utilized their cold weather assault stormtroopers, nicknamed snowtroopers, who wore a special mask and a kama that both resembled the equipment worn by the Galactic Marines on Mygeeto during the Clone Wars. Coastal defender stormtroopers were stormtroopers trained and equipped to operate in coastal and tropical regions, such as those found on Scarif.
Similar to the Shadow Troopers, the black armored death troopers were an elite variant of troopers under Imperial Intelligence's Tarkin Initiative. They were usually assigned to protect high ranking personnel and equipped with SE-14r light repeating blasters.
Magma troopers were equipped to operate in extremely high temperatures, and were trained to fight on volcanic worlds such as Sullust. Spacetroopers wore armor designed to breathe in space and were used to patrol parts of the Death Star with no air.
Shock Troopers were armed with heavy weaponry and wore stormtrooper armor with distinctive red markings, similar to those of Republic clone troopers who served as Coruscant Guards during the Clone Wars. There also existed Imperial Heavy Troopers who were equipped with heavy combat armor and electrostaffs, similar to the Imperial riot troopers. Heavy Weapons Stormtroopers wielded large, rotary blaster cannons while the more agile Jumptroopers, equipped with jet packs easily bounded over walls and other obstacles to assault targets directly. Stormtrooper grenadiers wielded grenade launchers, and wore a red pauldron along with a black bandolier across their chest, while Stormtrooper chargers took down their opponents with extreme ferocity.
Stormtroopers in mechanized battle armor armed with heavy handheld cannon were present at the battle of Sevarcos. Purge Troopers helped enforce Imperial law in the Anoat sector, being lead by the formidable Commander Bragh during the Iron Blockade. Flametroopers were stormtroopers equipped with incendiary weapons. Storm Commandos were the special forces of the Stormtrooper Corps and were trained to deal with extreme combat situations.
Thirty years after the Battle of Endor, variants of the former Galactic Empire's armed forces would exist under the auspices of a new organization known as the First Order. It would continue to utilize new stormtroopers, as well as megablaster heavy assault troopers, riot control stormtroopers, snowtroopers, and flametroopers.
Behind the scenesEdit
Stormtroopers, as depicted in the early drafts of Star Wars and envisioned by Ralph McQuarrie, were to wield lightsabers and hand-held shields. George Lucas, when composing background information for licensees in 1977, stated that females did exist in the Stormtrooper Corps, although there were few stationed on the Death Star. He suggested that they were numerous in other units.
In Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope, an actor playing a stormtrooper accidently hit his head on a doorway. In the Star Wars Special Editions, a sound was added for the purpose of comedy. Over the years the accident turned into a tradition by making actors hit their heads on doors in the Star Wars films. 
Stormtroopers were named after Imperial German Sturmtruppen, which in English translated to Stormtroopers, special troops who were tasked in the last year of World War I with mounting fierce infantry assaults on Allied trenches in an attempt to break the stalemate on the Western Front. However, many aspects of the branch of service, such as their unwavering obedience to the Emperor, their reputation for excessive force, and their status as an independent element separate from the overall army bears some similarity to the Sturmabteilung (Lit: Assault Section) of the 1930s NSDAP party in Germany, as well as the Waffen-SS or "Armed SS" units that served as independent military formations controlled directly by the Nazi hierarchy and not the German High Command during World War II.[source?]
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Notes and referencesEdit
- Stormtrooper on Wikipedia